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Table of Contents

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World of MusicTable of Contents

Part One: Preparation for Listening

Chapter 1: Introducing the World of Music 4

The Infinite Variety of Music: A Global Perspective

The American Mainstream and Ethnic Diversity

Music in Culture

Music Labels: Help or Hindrance?

Artists and Artistry

The Business of Music

Manufacturing and Merchandising

Performance of Music

Music Publishing and Copyright Laws

Music in Advertising

Music in the Community

Summary

Chapter 2: The Nature of Music: Vocabulary for Listening and Understanding 18

Definitions of Music

Music as a Science

Expressive and Functional Qualities of Music

Music Is Sound and Silence

Music Moves through Time

Music Is an Art

Music Is Universal

Music Is a Means of Expression

Music Can Be Functional

Music Is a Changing Art

The Creative, Performing, and Listening Experiences

Participating in Active Listening

The Elements of Music

Melody

Harmony

Rhythm

Loudness

Tone Quality

Interaction of the Elements

To Create a Style: Musical Concepts

Texture

Genres and Forms

Melodic Growth and Character

Goals for Listening

Summary

Part Two: Listening to American Music: Folk, Religious, Jazz, and Pop

Chapter 3: Folk Music Traditions 42

Goals for Listening

The Roots of Traditional Folk Music

Types of Folk Music

The Blues

Folk Music: An Expanded View

The Urban Folk Revival

Urban Blues

Summary

Chapter 4: Religious Music Traditions 56

Goals for Listening

The Roots of American Protestant Music

Psalm Singing and Psalters

Lining Out, Singing Schools, and the Shape-Note System

Traditional Black Gospel Music

White Gospel Music: Revival and Evangelical Hymns

Popular Contemporary Styles

Summary

Chapter 5: Jazz Styles 72

Goals for Listening

What Is Jazz?

The Jazz Style

The Feel of Swing

Instruments

Improvisation

The Roots of Jazz

Jazz Styles

New Orleans and Chicago Jazz

Stride and Boogie Woogie

Swing and Big Band Jazz

Bebop

Cool Jazz, Hard Bop, Soul Jazz, and Free Jazz

Modern Jazz, Fusion, and Smooth Jazz

Summary

Chapter 6: Popular Music

Goals for Listening

The Definition and Scope of Popular Music

Pre-Twentieth Century

Twentieth Century and Beyond

Tin Pan Alley

Vaudeville
Musicals
Film
Radio and Recordings

Country Music

Hillbilly
Cowboy Songs and Western Swing
Bluegrass
The Nashville Sound
Contemporary Country

Early African American Influences

Motown
Gospel
Rhythm and Blues
Soul

Contemporary Styles

Rock
Rap/Hip-Hop

Other Genres

Summary

Part Three: Listening to World Music

Chapter 7: Music of the Americas 132

Goals for Listening

Native American Music

Style and Context

Assimilation and Preservation

Ethnic Music in the United States

Reggae

Latino Music

Cajun and Zydeco Music

Music of South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean

Indigenous Folk Culture

Musical Instruments

Folk Songs and Dances

Religious Influences

Summary

Chapter 8: Music Beyond the Americas 152

Goals for Listening

Music in India

Classical Music

Popular Music

Music in Japan

The Performance Context

Musical Genres

Gagaku
Kabuki
Koto, Shakuhachi, and Shamisen

Music in Sub-Saharan Africa

Music in Context

Instruments

Rhythm

Popular Music

Music in Eastern Europe

Indonesian Gamelan and Popular Music

Jewish Music

Cultural Context

Liturgical Music

Klezmer Music

Celtic Music

Instruments

Artists

Altan
Clannad
Solas
The Chieftains

Summary

Part Four: Listening to Western Classical Music

Chapter 9: Music to 1600 184

Goals for Listening

The Beginnings of Western Music (until 1450)

Gregorian Chant

Notation

Polyphonic Music

The Renaissance (1450–1600)

Choral and Vocal Music

Mass
Motet
Madrigal

Instrumental Music

The Reformation

Featured Composers

Josquin des Prez
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Giovanni Gabrieli

Summary

Chapter 10: Music of the Baroque Period (1600–1750) 212

Goals for Listening

Musical Characteristics

Texture

Major-Minor Tonal System

Continuo

Word Painting

Other Musical Characteristics

Instruments

Musical Forms and Genres

Opera

Orchestral Works

Chamber Music

Keyboard Works

Choral Music

Featured Composers

Johann Sebastian Bach

George Frideric Handel

Other Notable Composers

Summary

Chapter 11: Music of the Classic Period (1750–1820) 234

Goals for Listening

Musical Characteristics

Instruments

Genres

Instrumental

Vocal, Choral, and Opera

Forms

Sonata Form

Theme and Variations Minuet and Trio

Rondo

Featured Composers

Franz Joseph Haydn

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Ludwig van Beethoven

Summary

Chapter 12: Music of the Romantic Period (Nineteenth Century) 252

Goals for Listening

Musical Characteristics

Forms and Genres

Instrumental Forms and Genres

Opera and Ballet

Keyboard Forms and Genres

Songs

Featured Composers

Johannes Brahms

Frédéric Chopin

Felix Mendelssohn

Franz Schubert

Pyotr I’yich Tchaikovsky

Giuseppe Verdi

Richard Wagner

Other Notable Composers

Summary

Chapter 13: Music of the Twentieth Century 272

Goals for Listening

General Characteristics

Stylistic Developments and Featured Composers

Impressionism: Claude Debussy

Experimental Music: Igor Stravinsky

Atonal Music and Serialism: Arnold Schoenberg

Electronic Music: Edgard Varèse

Chance Music: John Cage

Nationalism: Béla Bartók

Nationalism: Charles Ives and Aaron Copland

Additional American Composers

Amy Cheney Beach
Ruth Crawford
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
Ulysses Kay
Henry Cowell
George Gershwin
William Grant Still

Neoclassical Music

Minimalism

Traditional Sounds

Summary

 

Chapter 14 (Create): Twenty-First-Century Perspectives

Featured Composers

Mickey Hart

Foday Musa Suso and the Kronos Quartet

Bela Fleck

Wu Man

Tan Dun

Terry Riley

John Adam

Jennifer Higdon

Summary

Selected Internet ResourcesAppendix: Classification for instruments according to Methods of Tone Production 

Glossary

Bibliography

Credits

Index