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Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy: A Laboratory Dissection Guide

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy: A Laboratory Dissection Guide

8th Edition

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ISBN10: 1260164152 | ISBN13: 9781260164152

$169.00

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Program Details

1  Introduction 1
Classification and Comparison 1
Defining the Chordates 1
Chordate Characteristics 2
Studying Advice 6
Laboratory Strategy 6
Designing for Students 6
2  Protochordates 8
Protochordates 8
Hemichordata 8
Cephalochordata 10
Urochordata (Tunicates) 16
3  Agnathans—Examination of a Basal Vertebrate: The Lamprey 18
Agnathans 18
Myxini—Hagfishes 18
Petromyzoniformes—Lampreys 18
The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates: Shifts in
Feeding Mechanisms 20
Adult Lamprey Anatomy 22
External Anatomy 22
Sagittal and Cross Sections 22
Anatomy of the Lamprey (Ammocoete) Larva 27
Whole Mount 27
Cross Section through the Pharynx 28
Cross Section through the Trunk 28
4  Vertebrate Integuments 29
Introduction 29
Dermis 29
Epidermis 30
Examination of Vertebrate Integuments 31
Fishes 31
Tetrapods 33
Specializations of the Integument 37
Nails, Claws, and Hooves 37
Horns and Antlers 37
Baleen 38
5  Skeletal Systems 40
Tissues of the Skeletal System 40
Cartilage 41
Bone 42
Divisions of the Skeletal System 43
Postcranial Skeleton 43
Vertebrae and Ribs 43
Girdles and Limbs 52
Skull 67
Introduction 67
The Composite Skull 67
Cranial Skeleton 69
Elasmobranchii—Shark 69
Osteichthyes—Amia (Bowfin) 71
Amphibia—Necturus 72
Reptilia 72
Aves 78
Dorsal and Lateral Views 79
Ventral and Posterior Views 80
Sclerotic Ring and Hyoid 80
Mammalia—Cat 80
Teeth 84
Tooth Anatomy 84
Sharks—Homodont
and Polyphyodont Teeth 84
Amphibia/Salamander—Homodont and Polyphyodont Teeth 84
Reptiles/Alligator—Homodont
and Polyphyodont Teeth 85
Mammal—Heterodont and Diphyodont Teeth 85
Pattern of Evolutionary Change 86
 6  Muscular Systems and External Anatomy 89
Introduction 89
Terminology 89
Actions 90
General Muscle Groups 90
Dissection 90
The Process 90
General Safety Precautions 91
External Anatomy 91
Shark Dissection 91
External Anatomy 91
Skinning the Shark 92
Musculature 92
Necturus 100
External Anatomy 100
Dissection 100
Musculature 100
Cat 106
External Anatomy 106
Approach 106
Musculature 107
7  Digestive Systems 132
Introduction 132
Shark 132
Pleuroperitoneal Cavity 132
Pericardial Cavity 137
Necturus 137
Pleuroperitoneal Cavity 137
Pericardial Cavity 139
Cat 139
Salivary Glands 139
Oral Cavity 140
Structures of the Thoracic Region 142
Abdomen 144
8  Circulatory and Respiratory Systems 147
Introduction 147
Respiratory System 147
Circulatory System 147
Shark 147
Pericardial Cavity 147
Respiratory System and Branchial Arteries 148
Pleuroperitoneal Cavity 151
Necturus 155
The Heart, Branches of the Ventral Aorta, and Gills 155
Dorsal Aorta and Lungs 157
Hepatic Portal System 161
Systemic Veins 161
Cat 162
Heart and Its Major Vessels 162
Respiratory System 165
Precava 168
Dorsal Aorta 169
Postcava 170
Hepatic Portal System 172
9  Urogenital Systems 174
Shark 174
Male Urogenital System 174
Female Urogenital System 176
Necturus 179
Male Urogenital System 179
Female Urogenital System 181
Cat 181
Male Urogenital System 181
Female Urogenital System 184
10  Nervous Systems 187
Introduction 187
Nerve Function 188
Spinal Nerves 188
Cranial Nerves 189
Shark 192
Dissection Procedure 192
Brain (Dorsal Aspect) 193
Cranial Nerves 193
Brain (Ventral Aspect) 196
Brain (Sagittal Aspect) 197
Sheep Brain 197
Overview—Whole Brain 197
Cranial Nerves—Whole Brains
(Figure 10.11) 202
Brain Regions—Sagittal Sections
(Figure 10.12) 202
Brain Stem—Parts (Figure 10.13) 204
Spinal Nerves 204
Glossary 206
Index 213
Student Note Book 239
Master List of Relevant Roots 388