Read, Reason, Write

Read, Reason, Write unites instruction in critical reading, analysis of argument, and research strategies. A rich collection of contemporary and classic readings provide both practice for these skills and new ideas and insights for readers. Read, Reason, Write shows students how reading, argumentative, research, and analytic skills are interrelated and how these skills combine to develop each student's critical thinking ability.

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Features of Read, Reason, Write

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About the Authors

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Chapter 1       Writers and Their Sources

                        Reading, Writing, and the Contexts of Argument

                        Responding to Sources

                        Abraham Lincoln, “The Gettysburg Address”

                                    The Response to Content

                                    The Analytic Response

                                    The Evaluation Response

                                    The Research Response

                        Deborah Tannen, “Who Does the Talking Here?”

                        Writing Summaries

                                    Guidelines for Writing Summaries

                        Active Reading: Use Your Mind!

                                    Guidelines for Active Reading

                        Ruth Whippman, “Actually, Let’s Not Be in the Moment”

                        Using Paraphrase

                        Acknowledging Sources Informally

                                    Referring to People and Sources

                        Joel Achenbach, “The Future Is Now: It’s Heading Right At Us, But We Never

                                                See It Coming”

                        Presenting Direct Quotations: A Guide to Form and Style

                                    Reasons for Using Quotation Marks

                                    A Brief Guide to Quoting

                        For Reading and Analysis

                        Alex Knapp, “Five Leadership Lessons from James T. Kirk”

                        Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 2       Responding Critically to Sources

                        Traits of the Critical Reader/Thinker

                        Examining the Rhetorical Context of a Source

                                    Who Is the Author?

                                    What Type—or Genre—of Source Is It?

                                    What Kind of Audience Does the Author Anticipate?

                                    What is the Author’s Primary Purpose?

                                    What Are the Author’s Sources of Information?

                        Analyzing the Style of a Source

                                    Denotative and Connotative Word Choice


                                    Level of Diction

                                    Sentence Structure


                                    Organization and Examples


                                    Hyperbole, Understatement, and Irony

                                    Quotation Marks, Italics, and Capital Letters

                        Alexandra Petri, “Nasty Women Have Much Work to Do”

                        Writing about Style

                                    Understanding Purpose and Audience

                                    Planning the Essay

                                    Drafting the Style Analysis

                                    A Checklist for Revision

                        Ellen Goodman, “In Praise of a Snail’s Pace”

                        Student Essay: James, Goode, “A Convincing Style”

                        Analyzing Two or More Sources

                                    Guidelines for Preparing a Contrast Essay

                        For Reading and Analysis

                        Adam Grant, “Why I Taught Myself to Procrastinate”

                        Suggestions for Discussion and Writing



Chapter 3       Understanding the Basics of Argument

                        Characteristics of Argument

                                    Argument Is Conversation with a Goal

                                    Argument Takes a Stand on an Arguable Issue

                                    Argument Uses Reasons and Evidence

                                    Argument Incorporates Values

                                    Argument Recognizes the Topic’s Complexity

                        The Shape of Argument: What We Can Learn from Aristotle

                                    Ethos (about the Writer/Speaker)

                                    Logos (about the Logic of the Argument)

                                    Pathos (about Appeals to the Audience)

                                    Kairos (about the Occasion or Situation)

                        The Language of Argument




                        Sam Wang and Sandra Aamodt, “Your Brain Lies to You”

                        The Shape of Argument: What We Can Learn from Toulmin


                                    Grounds (or Data or Evidence)





                        Using Toulmin’s Terms to Analyze Arguments

                        Erin Brodwin, “The Secret to Efficient Teamwork Is Ridiculously Simple”

                        For Analysis and Debate

                        Christina Paxson, “A Safe Space for Freedom of Expression”

                        Geoffrey R. Stone, “Free Speech on Campus”

                        Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 4       Writing Effective Arguments

                        Know Your Audience

                                    Who Is My Audience?

                                    What Will My Audience Know about My Topic?                

                                    Where Does My Audience Stand on the Issue?

                                    How Should I Speak to My Audience?

                        Understanding Your Writing Purpose

                                    What Type (Genre) of Argument Am I Preparing?

                                    What Is My Goal?

                                    Will the Rogerian or Conciliatory Approach Work for Me?

                        Move from Topic to Claim to Possible Support

                                    Selecting a Topic

                                    Drafting a Claim

                                    Listing Possible Grounds

                                    Listing Grounds for the Other Side or Another Perspective

                                    Planning Your Approach

                        Draft Your Argument

                                    Guidelines for Drafting

                        Revise Your Draft



                                    A Few Words about Words and Tone


                                    A Checklist for Revision

                        For Analysis and Debate

                        Darius Rejali, “Five Myths about Torture and Truth”

  1. Gregg Bloche, “Torture Is Wrong—But It Might Work”

                        Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 5       Reading, Analyzing, and Using Visuals and Statistics in Argument

                        Responding to Visual Arguments

                                    Visual Rhetoric and Visual Literacy

                                    Guidelines for Reading Photographs

                                    Guidelines for Reading Political Cartoons

                                    Guidelines for Reading Advertisements

                        Reading Graphics

                                    Understanding How Graphics Differ

                                    Guidelines for Reading Graphics

                        The Uses of Authority and Statistics

                                    Judging Authorities

                                    Understanding and Evaluating Statistics

                                    Guidelines for Evaluating Statistics

                        Writing the Investigative Argument

                                    Gathering and Analyzing Evidence

                                    Planning and Drafting the Essay

                                    Guidelines for Writing an Investigative Argument

                                    Analyzing Evidence: The Key to an Effective Argument

                                    Preparing Graphic for Your Essay

                                    A Checklist for Revision

                        Student Essay: Garrett Berger, “Buying Time”

                        For Reading and Analysis

                        Joe Navarro “Every Body’s Talking”

                        Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 6       Learning More about Argument: Induction, Deduction, Analogy, and Logical Fallacies



                        “The Declaration of Independence”


                        Logical Fallacies

                                    Causes of Illogic

                                    Fallacies That Result from Oversimplifying

                                    Fallacies That Result from Avoiding the Real Issue

                        For Reading and Analysis

                        Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “Declaration of Sentiments”

                        Peter Wehner,”In Defense of Politics, now More Than Ever Before”



Chapter 7       Definition Arguments

                        Defining as Part of an Argument

                        When Defining Is the Argument

                        Strategies for Developing an Extended Definition

                                    Guidelines for Evaluating Definition Arguments

                        Preparing a Definition Argument

                        A Checklist for Revision

                        Student Essay: Laura Mullins, “Paragon or Parasite?”

                        For Analysis and Debate

                        Robin Givhan, “Glamour, That Certain Something”

                        Nicholas Haslam,”Crossing the Aegean Is Traumatic; Having a Bad Hair Day Isn’t.”

Chapter 8       Evaluation Arguments

                        Characteristics of Evaluation Arguments

                        Types of Evaluation Arguments

                                    Guidelines for Analyzing an Evaluation Argument

                        Preparing an Evaluation Argument

                                    A Checklist for Revision

                        Student Review: Ian Habel, “Winchester’s Alchemy: Two Men and a Book”

                        Evaluating an Argument: The Rebuttal or Refutation Essay

                                    Guidelines for Preparing a Refutation or Rebuttal Argument

                        Douglas Holtz-Eakin, “Globalization Shouldn’t Be a Dirty Word”

                        For Analysis and Debate

                        Thomas Sowell, “Christmas-Tree Totalitarians”

Chapter 9       The Position Paper: Claims of Values

                        Characteristics of the Position Paper

                                    Guidelines for Analyzing a Claim of Value

                        Preparing a Position Paper

                                    A Checklist for Revision

                        Student Essay: Chris Brown, “Examining the Issue of Gun Control”

                        For Analysis and Debate

                        Zainab Chaudry, “Ending Intolerance Toward Minority Communities: Hate Attacks on Sikh Americans”

Kate Wise Whitehead, “A Never Ending War”

Haider Javed Warraich, “On Assisted Suicide, Going Beyond ‘Do No Harm’”

                        Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 10     Arguments about Cause

                        Characteristics of Causal Arguments

                                    An Example of Causal Complexity: Lincoln’s Election and the Start of the

                                    Civil War

                                    Mill’s Methods for Investigating Causes

                                    Guidelines for Analyzing Causal Arguments

                        Preparing a Causal Argument

                                    A Checklist for Revision

                        For Analysis and Debate

                        Caroline Simard, “’Daring to Discuss Women in Science’: A Response to

                        John Tierney”

                        David A. Strauss, “A New Wave of Equality”

                        Suggestions for Discussion and Writing

Chapter 11     Presenting Proposals: The Problem/Solution Arguments

                        Characteristics of Problem/Solution Arguments

                                    Guidelines for Analyzing Problem/Solution Arguments

                        Priya Natarajan, “Want More Scientists? Turn Grade Schools into Laboratories”

                        Preparing a Problem/Solution Argument

                                    A Checklist for Revision

                        For Analysis and Debate

Braden Allenby, “After Armstrong’s Fall, the Case for Performance Enhancement”

Gretchen Carlson, “My Fight Against Sexual Harassment”

Jonathan Swift, “A Modest Proposal”

Suggestions for Discussion and Writing




Chapter 12     Locating, Evaluating, and Preparing to Use Sources

                        Selecting a Good Topic

                                    What Type of Paper Am I Preparing?

                                    Who Is My Audience?

                                    How Can I Select a Good Topic?

                                    What Kinds of Topics Should I Avoid?

                        Writing a Tentative Claim or Research Proposal

                        Preparing a Working Bibliography

                                    Basic Form for Books

                                    Basic Form for Articles

                        Locating Sources

                                    The Book Catalog

                                    The Reference Collection

                                    Electronic Databases

                                    Guidelines for Using Online Databases

                                    The Internet

                                    Guidelines for Searching the Web

                        Field Research

                                    Federal, State, and Local Government Documents



                                    Films, DVDs, Television

                                    Surveys, Questionnaires, and Original Research

                        Evaluating Sources, Maintaining Credibility

                                    Guidelines for Evaluating Sources

                        Preparing an Annotated Bibliography

                        Student Annotated Bibliography: David Donaldson, “Tell Us What You

                        Really Are: The Debate over Labeling Genetically Modified Food”

Chapter 13     Writing the Researched Essay

                                    Guideline for Studying Sources

                        Avoiding Plagiarism

                                    What is Common Knowledge?

                        Using Signal Phrases to Avoid Confusion

                                    Guidelines for Appropriately Using Sources

                        Organizing the Paper

                        Drafting the Essay

                                    Plan Your Time

                                    Handle In-Text Documentation as You Draft

                                    Choose an Appropriate Writing Style

                                    Write Effective Beginnings

                                    Avoid Ineffective Openings

                                    Compose Solid, Unified Paragraphs

                                    Write Effective Conclusions

                                    Avoid Ineffective Conclusions

                                    Choose an Effective Title

                        Revising the Paper: A Checklist




                        The Completed Paper

Sample Student Essay in MLA Style: David Donaldson, “Tell Us What You Really Are: The Debate over Labeling Genetically Modified Food”

Chapter 14     Formal Documentation: MLA Style, APA Style

                                    Guidelines for Using Parenthetical Documentation

                        The Simplest Patterns of Parenthetical Documentation

                        Placement of Parenthetical Documentation

                        Parenthetical Citations of Complex Sources

                        Preparing MLA Citations for a Works Cited List

                                    Forms for Books: Citing the Complete Book

                                    Forms for Books: Citing Part of a Book

Forms for Periodicals: Articles from Magazines, Journals and Newspapers

Forms for Digital Sources

Forms for Other Print and Nonprint Sources

                        Author/Year or APA Style

                                    APA Style: In-Text Citations

                        APA Style: Preparing a List of References

                                    Form for Books

                                    Form for Articles

                                    Form for Electronic Sources

                        Sample Student Essay in APA Style: Carissa Ervine, “The Relationship Between

                        Depression and Marital Status”



Chapter 15     The Media: Image and Reality

                        Mark Edmundson, “Off to See the Wizard”

                        Student Essay: Sienna Walker, “Big Pun’s Prophesy”

                        Stuart Elliott, “Coca-Cola—Taste the Change”

                        Tim Wu, “Mother Nature Is Being Brought to You By . . .”

                        Sanford J. Ungar, “Bannon’s Right.  The Media Is the ‘Opposition’”

                        Heather C. McGhee, “’I’m Prejudiced,’ He Said.  Then We Kept Talking.”

Chapter 16     The Internet and Social Media: Their Impact on Our Lives

                        Steven Pinker, “Mind over Mass Media”

                        Susan B. Crawford, “The New Digital Divide”

                        Fareed Zakaria, “Bile, Venom, and Lies: How I Was Trolled on the Internet”

                        Liza Tucker, “The Right to Bury the (Online) Past”

                        Caitlin Gibson, “Clever Is Forever”

                        George Yancy, “I Am a Dangerous Man”

Chapter 17     Marriage and Gender Issues: The Debates Continue


Chapter 18     American Education: Ongoing Issues and Concerns

Chapter 19     The Environment: How Do We Sustain It?


Chapter 20     Laws and Rights: Gun Control and Immigration Debates

Chapter 21     America: Past, Present, Future



Appendix       Understanding Literature