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Unit 1: Writing Process

1. Writing Process Overview

• Recognize different methods and tools of prewriting to generate and organize ideas throughout the writing process.

• Use outlining to plan and organize supporting details for your main.

• Use outlining to plan and organize supporting details for your central idea.

•Use results of prewriting to craft a topic sentence for a paragraph.

• Use results of prewriting to craft a thesis statement for an essay.

•Distinguish between revising and editing a piece of writing.

•Identify effective strategies and guidelines for conducting peer review.

•Administer appropriate peer review feedback using peer review strategies and guidelines.

•Analyze peer feedback to determine a revision plan.

•Evaluate and revise for unity in a piece of writing.

•Evaluate and revise for support in a piece of writing.

•Evaluate and revise for coherence in a piece of writing.

2. Writing Patterns Overview

•Identify definition in writing and common transitions used with this method.

•Identify descriptive writing and common transitions used with this method.

•Identify exemplification in writing and common transitions used with this method.

•Identify division/classification in writing and common transitions used with this method.

•Identify comparison and contrast writing and common transitions used with this method.

•Identify process writing and common transitions used with this method.

•Identify cause and effect writing and common

•Identify narrative writing and common transitions used with this method.

•Identify argument writing and common transitions used with this method.

•Identify multiple methods of development within a single essay.

•Apply knowledge of patterns of development to analyze relationships between ideas in expository texts.

•Apply a variety of patterns of development in students’ own writing.

3. Writing Situation: Purpose and Audience

•Select a purpose for writing: to inform, to share an experience, to analyze, to evaluate, and to persuade.

•Recognize the relationship between writing to inform and the patterns of writing.

•Recognize the relationship between writing to share an experience and the patterns of writing.

•Recognize the relationship between writing to analyze and the patterns of writing.

•Recognize the relationship between writing to evaluate and the patterns of writing.

•Recognize the relationship between writing to persuade and the patterns of writing.

•Analyze the audience to determine appropriate types of details.

•Analyze the audience to establish an appropriate tone of voice.

•Recognize the writing situation (purpose and audience).

•Determine and maintain an appropriate and a consistent point of view.

•Articulate the relationship between the writing situation, point of view, and tone.

•Select appropriate patterns of development based on the writing situation.

4. Main Idea and Support in a Paragraph

•Recognize the difference between a main idea and topic sentence.

•Recognize the difference between a main idea and its supporting details.

•Develop an effective topic sentence.

•Evaluate and revise a topic sentence for effectiveness.

•Expand upon a main idea with common types of support: facts, personal experiences, statistics, stories, informed or expert opinions.

•Select specific support for a topic sentence.

•Select concrete support for a topic sentence.

•Select relevant support for a topic sentence.

•Ensure adequate support for a topic sentence.

•Prioritize supporting details in a paragraph.

•Write a paragraph with a clear, singular idea and specific, adequate, concrete, and relevant support.

•Evaluate and revise a paragraph for clarity, coherence, and unity.

5. Thesis Statement and Support in an Essay

•Recognize the thesis statement of an essay.

•Develop an effective thesis statement that is neither too narrow nor too broad; announces the topic; announces the central/controlling idea; can be supported.

•Evaluate and revise a thesis statement for effectiveness.

•Determine appropriate types of support for a thesis statement: facts, personal experiences, statistics, stories, and informed or expert opinions.

•Maintain a logical relationship between an essay’s thesis statement and its topic sentences.

•Organize details into well-developed paragraphs using topic sentences to guide support and arrangement.

•Evaluate the supporting details in each paragraph of an essay and revise for effectiveness.

•Recognize and develop an effective introduction.

•Recognize and develop an effective conclusion.

•Evaluate and revise an essay for a clear, singular focus, coherence, logic, and unity.

6. Organizational Structures in Paragraphs and Essays

•Identify examples of commonly used transitions.

•Define and recognize time order and generalization and example as organizational structures, using transition words as clues.

•Define and recognize listing and spatial order as organizational structures, using transition words as clues.

•Analyze the writing situation to determine the most appropriate organizational structure in which to arrange supporting details.

•Select the method of organization that relates most logically to the writing situation and pattern of a piece of writing.

•Outline the organizational structure of a piece of writing.

•Incorporate transitional expressions most commonly used to express different kinds relationships between a sentence and paragraph, or a paragraph and paragraph.

•Evaluate and revise a paragraph or essay for effective organizational structure and logical transitions.

7. Evaluating Written Arguments

•Recognize the writer’s position in an argument: proving or defending?

•Recognize the relationship between the structure of an argument and its thesis.

•Distinguish between fact and opinion.

•Differentiate between valid and invalid claims.

•Support an argument with examples and evidence.

•Identify claims in an argument that address the opposition

•Recognize fallacies in an argument.

•Analyze the credibility, relevance, and adequacy of evidence presented to support the thesis of an argument.

•Distinguish visuals that convey information from visuals that express a point of view.

•Examine the writer’s diction and tone and how well it supports the writer’s position.

•Examine the writer’s diction and tone and its impact on the reader.

•Evaluate the writer’s connotative and denotative decisions and the impact those decisions have on the argument as a whole.

•Develop and craft a critique of an author’s argument.

8. Writing Arguments

•Develop an arguable thesis statement that can be supported or opposed with evidence and examples.

•Determine a consistent point of view from which to make an argument.

•Acknowledge the opposing point of view.

•Categorize common types of claims in an argument.

•Support claims with evidence.

•Revise an argument to eliminate unsound assumptions.

•Recognize fallacies that can weaken an argument.

•Analyze the adequacy, relevance, and validity of the evidence in an argument.

•Evaluate and revise an argument for clarity, coherence, and structure.

9. Source-Based Writing

•Evaluate the credibility, reliability, and point of view of a source in a piece of source-based writing.

•Select credible and reliable sources.

•Recognize evidence integrated in the form of summary.

•Recognize evidence integrated in the form of paraphrase.

•Recognize evidence integrated in the form of direct quotations.

•Integrate evidence in the forms of summary, paraphrase, or direct quotations.

•Evaluate summaries, paraphrases, and direct quotations and revise for relevance, effectiveness, and accuracy.

•Synthesize multiple-sources in source-based writing.

•Recognize the most common documentation systems used in academic writing: MLA (Humanities) and APA (Social Sciences).

•Recognize and describe the various forms of plagiarism in source-based writing.

Unit 2: Grammar and Mechanics

1. Parts of Speech Review

•Recognize and identify nouns and their functions in a sentence.

•Recognize and identify pronouns and their functions in a sentence.

•Recognize and identify action and linking verbs.

•Recognize and identify adjectives and adverbs and the words they describe.

•Recognize and identify coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.

•Recognize and identify prepositions.

2. Verbs: Form, Tense, and Other Information

•Identify and correct errors in both regular and irregular verb tense.

•Identify and correct errors

in both regular and irregular verb form.

•Recognize shifts in verb tense and edit for correctness.

•Recognize and correct shifts in voice.

•Recognize verbals: infinitives, participles, gerunds and how they function in a sentence.

•Evaluate verb form and tense in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

3. Coordination and Subordination

•Recognize the components of an independent clause.

•Differentiate an independent clause from a dependent clause.

•Recognize the logical relationships coordinating conjunctions express (effect/cause, addition, addition of negatives, contrast, alternative).

•Recognize the logical relationships subordinating conjunctions express (effect/cause, contrast, condition, time).

•Use coordination and subordination to show logical relationships between ideas.

•Evaluate sentences in paragraphs for correct coordination.

•Evaluate sentences in paragraphs for correct subordination.

4. Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices

•Recognize sentence fragments and edit for correctness.

•Recognize a run-on, or fused sentence, and edit for correctness.

•Recognize comma splices and edit for correctness.

•Practice using the four common methods for correcting run-ons, fused sentences, or comma splices: a period and a capital letter; a comma and a joining word; semicolon, subordination.

•Edit paragraphs to eliminate fragments, run-ons, and comma splices.

5. Sentence Variety

•Recognize different sentence types in paragraphs (simple, compound, complex, compound-complex).

•Recognize and apply verbal phrase modifiers to vary sentence openers: to-, -ing, and –ed forms.

•Recognize and apply different word series to vary the patterns of sentences in a paragraph: adjectives in a series, verbs in a series.

•Expand simple sentences with clauses and phrases: appositives, adjective clauses, adverb clauses, absolute phrases, prepositional phrases.

•Recognize and apply coordination and subordination to vary sentence patterns and to make connections between ideas.

•Evaluate the sentence patterns in paragraphs and edit to vary for interest, unity, and coherence.

6. Subject-Verb Agreement

•Determine whether the subject and verb in a sentence agree in number: singular subject = singular verb; plural subject = plural verb.

•Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when words come between the subject and the verb: prepositional phrases, dependent clauses.

•Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the sentence contains a compound subject.

•Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject is a collective noun.

•Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject appears plural but is singular.

•Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject is joined with either/or, neither/nor, and not only/but also.

•Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject is an indefinite pronoun.

•Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject is who, which, or that.

•Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the verb comes before the subject.

•Evaluate paragraphs for errors in subject-verb agreement and edit for correctness.

7. Pronouns: Reference, Agreement, and Case

•Look for pronoun-antecedent agreement.

•Identify and edit pronoun reference for accuracy.

•Recognize indefinite pronouns and their functions.

•Recognize and use correct pronoun case: as subjects, as objects, that show possession.

•Recognize shifts in pronoun points-of-view.

•Identify and correct pronoun confusion.

•Evaluate use of pronoun reference, agreement, and case in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

8. Adjectives and Adverbs

•Identify and correct common errors in adjective and adverb use.

•Identify and correct errors in adjectives and adverbs that compare.

•Identify and correct common errors in the use of irregular forms of adjectives and adverbs.

•Recognize when to use well and good and bad and badly.

•Identify and correct errors when adjectives and adverbs are absolute words.

•Evaluate paragraphs for effective use of adjectives and adverbs and edit for correctness.

9. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers in Context

•Locate and identify misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers.

•Evaluate paragraphs for misplaced modifiers and edit for correctness.

•Evaluate paragraphs for dangling modifiers and edit for correctness.

10. Parallelism in Context

•Recognize parallelism and identify faulty parallelism.

•Identify and correct faulty parallelism in a series.

•Identify and correct faulty parallelism in headings, outlines and lists.

•Identify and correct faulty parallelism in comparisons.

•Evaluate paragraphs for faulty parallelism and edit for correctness.

11. End Punctuation: Periods, Question Marks, Exclamation Points

•Determine whether a sentence is making a statement, asking a direct question, or expressing a strong feeling, and apply the appropriate end punctuation for each.

•Evaluate use of end punctuation in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

•Evaluate use of end punctuation in paragraphs and edit for overuse.

12. Commas

•Use a comma after introductory words.

•Differentiate essential from non-essential information and insert or remove commas as appropriate.

•Use commas to set off interrupting words.

•Use commas with parts of dates, addresses, titles, and numbers.

•Use commas to set off direct, not indirect, quotations.

•Recognize and eliminate unnecessary use of commas.

•Evaluate and edit paragraphs for comma use to add commas where appropriate and eliminate unnecessary commas.

13. Apostrophes and Quotation Marks

•Recognize the main uses of apostrophes: to form contractions, to show ownership or possession.

•Distinguish between contractions, possessive pronouns, and simple plurals.

•Evaluate apostrophe use in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

•Recognize the main uses of quotation marks: to set off direct quotations, to set off special phrases or words, to set around the titles of short works.

•Demonstrate knowledge of how to use quotation marks with other forms of punctuation: commas, semicolons, colons, and end punctuation.

•Differentiate a direct quotation from an indirect quotation and punctuate accordingly.

•Recognize when to use single quotation marks versus double quotation marks and punctuate accordingly.

•Evaluate sentences or paragraphs for special words or phrases that might require quotation marks.

•Evaluate the use of quotation marks in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

14. Colons and Semicolons

•Differentiate colons from semicolons.

•Identify a colon in a sentence and recognize its function: to introduce a list, a long, direct quotation, or an explanation.

•Identify a colon in other contexts and recognize its function: to indicate a ratio and time of day, to separate a title and a subtitle.

•Identify a semicolon in a sentence and recognize its function: to join two complete thoughts not already connected by a joining word or that includes a transitional word.

•Recognize lengthy items in a series that need to be separated by a semicolon.

•Evaluate paragraphs for use of colons and semicolons and edit for correctness.

15. Other Punctuation

•Identify parentheses in a sentence and recognize their function: to enclose extra information; to enclose numbers or letters in a list.

•Distinguish between the dash and the hyphen.

•Identify a dash in a sentence and recognize its function: to set off information within, at the beginning, and the end of a sentence for dramatic effect.

•Identify a hyphen in a sentence and recognize its function: to make a compound adjective placed before a noun; to spell out fractions and compound numbers; to join some prefixes and suffixes.

•Evaluate paragraphs for appropriate use of parentheses, dashes, and hyphens and eliminate those that are unnecessary.

16. Capitalization

•Apply the rules for capitalizing sentences.

•Apply the rules for capitalizing direct and indirect quotations.

•Apply the rules for capitalizing proper nouns and the pronoun “I.”

•Apply the rules for capitalizing titles and subtitles from literature, music, film, television, magazines, and newspapers.

•Evaluate capitalization in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

17. Numbers and Abbreviations

•Recognize the elements that must always be presented in numerical form: dates, times, addresses, percentages, exact sums of money, and parts of a book.

•Apply consistent presentation of numbers in a series.

•Recognize the most common situations in which the use of abbreviations in writing is acceptable: titles with proper names, time references, trade names or technical expressions.

•Evaluate the use of periods in abbreviations and edit for correctness.

•Evaluate the presentation of numbers and the use of abbreviations and edit for correctness.

18. Spelling and Word Use

•Apply the three basic rules for improving spelling: change y to i; drop the final silent e; double the final consonant.

•Recognize commonly confused words and use sentence context clues to decide on the correct word.

•Identify and replace inappropriate language choices: slang, euphemisms, cliches, sexist and biased words, pretentious or inflated words, vague and abstract words, expletives.

•Differentiate denotation from connotation and recognize relationship to tone.

•Evaluate paragraphs for wordiness and edit to make more concise.

•Evaluate the use of passive or active voice in paragraphs and determine its appropriateness.

•Recognize repetition in paragraphs and practice ways to avoid making this mistake.

•Recognize omitted words in paragraphs and practice ways to avoid making this mistake.

•Evaluate the tone of paragraphs and edit language for consistency and appropriateness.