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Supervision: A Redefinition
Supervision: A Redefinition

Supervision: A Redefinition, 9th Edition

ISBN10: 0073378666 | ISBN13: 9780073378664
By Thomas Sergiovanni, Robert Starratt and Vincent Cho
© 2014

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* The estimated amount of time this product will be on the market is based on a number of factors, including faculty input to instructional design and the prior revision cycle and updates to academic research-which typically results in a revision cycle ranging from every two to four years for this product. Pricing subject to change at any time.

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The ninth edition of Supervision: A Redefinition is a research-based guide to the practice of supervision that aims to clarify the major challenges teachers and supervisors face within the policy context; focus on essential, foundational understandings that feed the integrity of teaching and supervision; and explore the complexities of the practice of supervision and teaching which supervisors must deal with. The 9th edition re-defines supervision once again in light of the complex demands being placed on principals and central office administrators, while continuing to emphasize the book’s original theme of human perspectives.

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Part I: The Contemporary Context of Teacher Supervision and Evaluation

Chapter 1: The Context for Instructional Supervision


A Day in the Life of a Principal

Lessons from the Narrative

The Difficulty of Defining a Role or Function like Supervision

The “New” Standards-based Accountability

The Diversity Policy Agenda

Follow Up Activities to Chapter 1


Chapter 2: Contemporary Issues Around Fairness in Supervision


External Influences That Impact Performance on State and District Tests

Internal Influences that Impact Performance on State and District Tests

The Limitations and Misuse of State Tests and the Unwarranted Judgments Connected with Their “Results”

Issues of Fairness within the Supervisory Process Itself


Follow Up Activities


Chapter 3: Issues around “Data Driven” Decision Making in Supervision

Data and Its Use

Some Background

Data Use

The Learning Community Context

The Knowledge Management Perspective

Organizational Knowledge

The Unique Properties of Knowledge

Conclusion: The Importance of Data-Informed Reflection


Building a Learning Community


Chapter 4: Issues Around Cultural Responsiveness

Cura Personalis

Elements of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

Potential Misperceptions about Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

Culture, Poverty, and Schools

Who is Served by Culturally Responsive Pedagogy?

Enacting Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

The Needs of Immigrant Children

Addressing Regional Patterns of Economic and Racial Segregation

Implications for Supervision




Part II: Foundations for Supervisors

Chapter 5: Supervisors’ Perspectives on Human Development


Erikson’s Model of Human Growth

Implications for Supervisors

Journal Reflections


Chapter 6: Supervisors’ Perspectives on Curriculum


Accountability for Curriculum Standards

Ways Teachers Might Think About Curriculum

The Curriculum and Membership in the World

The Immediacy of the Social Curriculum

The Curriculum as Planned, as Taught, as Learned, and as Assessed

The Curriculum as Planned
The Curriculum as Taught
The Curriculum as Learned
The Curriculum as Assessed

Where is the Curriculum?

Conclusions and Implications

The Unattended and Unrealized Curriculum of Membership



Chapter 7: Supervisors’ Perspectives on Teaching and Learning


Student Informal Experiential Learning

The Schooling Experience

The Learned World of the Teacher

Learning as Sense-Making

Pushing for Depth of Learning

The Activity of Teaching

Teaching and Learning in a Dysfunctional Institution

Supervisors’ Applications of the Triangle Model

The Focus on Quality Learning for All Students




Chapter 8: Supervisors’ Perspectives on the Assessment of Student Learning

The Formal Assessment of Student Learning

Purposes Behind Assignments
Assessment Types and Their Features

Technologies and Assessment

Implications for Supervisors

Cultivate an "Attitude of Wisdom"
Rethinking the Cycle of Inquiry
The Overall System of Assessment




Part III: The Practice of Supervision

Chapter 9: Supervision and Evaluation: Confusions and Clarifications


Evaluation by Whom

Modifying the Language of Supervision: Assessment vs. Evaluation

Purposes of Supervisory Activity

The Emergence of Teacher Leadership

Formative and Summative Supervisory Activity

Summative Supervision

A Redefinition of Formative Teacher Supervision

Summative Teacher Supervision

Applications of Formative Supervision

Applications of Summative Evaluation




Chapter 10: Formative Supervision


Clinical Supervision

The Cycle of Clinical Supervision

Pre-Observation Conference

Observation of Teaching

Analysis and Organization of the Data for Feedback

Post-Observation Conference

The Post-Observation Analysis

Unrealistic Time Demands on Supervisors

Similarities of the Dynamics in Clinical Supervision and Coaching

The Virtue of Presence in Formative Assessment

Presence as a Virtue

Affirming Presence

Enabling Presence

Critical Presence




Chapter 11: Supervision and Summative Assessments


Major Influences on New Summative Assessment Practices

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
Teacher Advancement Program (TAP)
Frameworks for Teaching (FFT)

A Professional Development Culture

State Initiatives

Common Conceptions of State Initiatives Connected to Summative Teacher Assessments

Conclusion: A Redefinition of Summative Evaluation


Chapter 12: Central Office Support for Supervision

Central Offices and the Policy Environment

State Standards for Teacher Evaluation
Teacher Incentive Pay

Supporting Supervision from the District-Level

A Vision for Supervision
Developing Supervisors’ Knowledge and Skills
Address Political and Practical Challenges Around Evaluation
Embracing Central Office’s Place in the Policy Chain




Chapter 13: Supervision and the Renewal of Schools


Some Background

Intellectual and Moral Dimensions of Supervisory Leadership

A Transition from Bureaucratic to Organic Management

Advocate for Student Learning

Some Reflections


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About the Author

Thomas Sergiovanni

Thomas J. Sergiovanni is Lillian Radford Professor of Education and Administration in Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas. He received his BS degree (1958) in elementary education from the State University of New York, Geneseo; his MA degree (1959) in educational administration from Teachers College, Columbia University; and his Ed.D. degree (1966), also in educational administration, from the University of Rochester. Sergiovanni also holds the Doctor of Humane Letters degree from the University of San Diego and the Doctor of Humane Letters degree from the State University of New York. From 1958 to 1964, he was an elementary school teacher and science consultant in New York state and taught in the teacher education program at the State University of New York, Buffalo. In 1966, he began nineteen years on the educational administration faculty at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where he chaired the department for seven years. At Trinity University, Sergiovanni teaches in the school leadership program and in the five-year teacher education program. He is senior fellow at the Center for Educational Leadership and the founding director of the Trinity Principals' Center. A former associate editor of Educational Administration Quarterly, he serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, , Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice and Schools: Studies in Education. Among his recent books are Moral Leadership: Getting to the Heart of School Improvement (1992), Building Community in Schools (1994), Leadership for the Schoolhouse: How Is It Different? Why Is It Important? (1996), Rethinking Leadership (1999), The Lifeworld of Leadership: Creating Culture, Community, and Personal Meaning in Our Schools (2000), Leadership: What's In It For Schools (2001), Strengthening the Heartbeat: Leading and Learning Together in Schools (2005) and The Principalship: A Reflective Practice Perspective, 5E (2006)

Robert Starratt

Robert J. Starratt is Professor and Program Director in Educational Administration at the School of Education of Boston College. He received his Masters degree in Philosophy from Boston College, his Masters degree in Education from Harvard University, and his Doctor of Education degree from the University of Illinois, specializing in administration and curriculum theory. He has written extensively about educational leadership and the process of change. His recent books include: The Drama of Schooling/The Schooling of Drama, The Drama of Leadership, Building an Ethical School, and Transforming Educational Administration.

Vincent Cho

Vincent Cho is Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership at the Lynch School of Education at Boston College. He received his master’s degree from the University of Houston as a member of its Urban Principals Program. He completed
his Ph.D. in Educational Policy and Planning at The University of Texas at Austin. His dissertation and journal publications have addressed issues around technologies, school practices, and district policies that support data use.


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