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Program Details

Unit 1: Reading and Writing

1. Reading and Writing as Complementary Processes

Recognize reading and writing as cyclical, recursive processes that often require multiple readings and multiple drafts

Recognize common purposes for reading and writing (to inform, to entertain, to instruct, and to persuade)

Define the purpose and audience for a reading selection or writing task

Make writing decisions that consider audience and purpose

Identify context, genre, and the writer’s point of view when reading a text critically

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic

2. Reading, Vocabulary, and Study Skills

Recognize strategies that experienced readers apply at different phases of the reading process—pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading.

Distinguish between fact and opinion, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Distinguish between fact and opinion, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Interpret charts, graphs and other visual aids.

Use word parts to determine a word’s meaning.

Use context clues to determine a word’s meaning.

Use the features of textbooks and articles to improve comprehension and study skills.

Recognize effective strategies for studying textbooks.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

3. Writing Process

Identify prewriting strategies for generating ideas such as brainstorming, free writing, and clustering.

Use a variety of prewriting strategies during the writing process.

Use outlines and graphic organizers to plan and organize a piece of writing.

Self-monitor writing progress to know when to return to the prewriting or drafting phases if necessary.

Identify effective strategies and guidelines for conducting peer review.

Apply peer review guidelines to offer appropriate peer review comments on a piece of writing.

Analyze peer review feedback to determine a revision plan.

Distinguish between revising and editing a piece of writing.

Revise students’ own writing for meaning.

Revise students’ own writing for style.

Edit students’ own writing effectively.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

Unit 2: Integrated Reading and Writing Skills

1. Identifying and Developing Main Ideas

Identify the topic sentence in a paragraph.

Write topic sentences for paragraphs.

Determine whether a thesis is specific, clear, and supportable.

Identify the thesis in a selected text, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Identify the thesis in a selected text, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Determine the implied main idea of a text, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Determine the implied main idea of a text, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Evaluate the strength of a thesis statement in a text, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Evaluate the strength of a thesis statement in a text, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Evaluate the strength of a thesis statement in students’ own writing.

Revise a thesis statement to be more specific, clearer, or more supportable.

Establish a specific, clear, supportable thesis in students’ own writing.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic. (Level 1)

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic. (Level 2)

2. Supporting Points and Evidence (Identifying Supporting Details in Reading/Supporting a Thesis in Writing)

Identify supporting details, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Identify supporting details, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Recognize common types of supporting details used by authors.

Prioritize the supporting details in a paragraph.

Prioritize the supporting details in an essay.

Identify relationships between supporting details and main ideas in paragraphs.

Identify relationships between supporting details and main ideas in essays.

Analyze a paragraph to determine the adequacy and relevance of support provided for topic sentences.

Analyze an essay to determine the adequacy and relevance of support provided for thesis statements.

Analyze students’ own writing to determine the adequacy and relevance of support provided for topic sentences and thesis statements.

Apply adequate supporting details in students’ own writing.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

3. Writing in Response to Reading: Parallel Writing and Reading Strategies

Identify the ways a reader can respond to and interact with a text to increase comprehension.

Mark, annotate, and take notes on a text to increase comprehension and prepare to write about it.

Use outlining and a graphic organizer to organize a written response to a reading.

Use outlining and use graphic organizers to study and comprehend textbooks and literary and expository texts.

Distinguish between a summary and a paraphrase.

Identify the components of a good summary.

Summarize text information to demonstrate comprehension of a passage or an essay.

Summarize portions of text sources appropriately in a response to a reading.

Paraphrase portions of text sources appropriately in a response to a reading.

Use quotations properly in a response to a reading.

Critique an author’s argument.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

4. Recognizing and Applying Organizational Structures

Identify the hierarchy of ideas within a text, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Identify the hierarchy of ideas within a text, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Identify examples of commonly used transitions.

Evaluate the use of transitions in a text to move a reader from one point to another clearly and effectively.

Revise a piece of writing to improve transitions.

Use transitions appropriately in students’ own writing.

Define and recognize time order and generalization and example as organizational structures, using transition words as clues, Level 1

Define and recognize time order and generalization and example as organizational structures, using transition words as clues, Level 2

Define and recognize listing and spatial order as organizational structures, using transition words as clues, Level 1

Define and recognize listing and spatial order as organizational structures, using transition words as clues, Level 2

Apply organizational structures in students’ own writing to develop a thesis logically.

Analyze how the introduction and the concluding paragraphs establish a context for the thesis in a text.

Craft appropriate introduction and conclusion paragraphs in students’ own writing.

Outline the organizational structure of a piece of writing.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

5. Identifying and Applying Patterns of Development (Narration, Description, Definition, Exemplification, Division/Classification, Process, Comparison and Contrast, Cause and Effect, Argument, Mixed Modes)

Identify narrative writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify descriptive writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify definition in writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify exemplification in writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify division/classification in writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify process writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify comparison and contrast writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify cause and effect writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify argument writing and common transitions used with this method.

Identify multiple methods of development within a single essay.

Apply knowledge of patterns of development to analyze relationships between ideas in expository texts, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Apply knowledge of patterns of development to analyze relationships between ideas in expository texts, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Determine which patterns of development to use within a particular writing context.

Apply a variety of patterns of development in students’ own writing.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

6. Writer’s / Reader’s Purpose: Audience and Tone

Demonstrate consideration and understanding of audience when reading/writing.

Demonstrate consideration and understanding of purpose when reading/writing.

Identify an author’s tone in a text, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Identify an author’s tone in a text, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Recognize appropriate tone for audience and purpose.

Use an appropriate tone in students’ own writing.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

7. Writer’s / Reader’s Purpose: Diction and Vocabulary

Apply an understanding of connotation and denotation to choose appropriate words for the writer's audience and purpose.

Analyze how the author’s diction affects a piece of text.

Analyze how diction affects students’ own writing.

Identify examples of positive/neutral/negative connotations in a text.

Apply understanding of connotation to word choices in students’ own writing.

Recognize different types of figurative language.

Identify and interpret figurative language in a text, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Identify and interpret figurative language in a text, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Use figurative language appropriately in students’ own writing.

Use college-level vocabulary in students’ own writing.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

8. Reading to Infer/Writing to Imply

Demonstrate the ability to make inferences from a text, Level 1. (925L-1260)

Demonstrate the ability to make inferences from a text, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Demonstrate the ability to seek evidence for inferences within the text, Level 1. (925L-1260L)

Demonstrate the ability to seek evidence for inferences within the text, Level 2. (1080L-1480L)

Identify reasons why authors imply meaning in their writing.

Demonstrate the ability to imply meaning in students’ own writing.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

9. Evaluating and Supporting Arguments

Define the structure of an argument.

Recognize the thesis of an argument.

Identify arguments that oppose an author’s thesis.

Identify an author's assumptions

Analyze the credibility, relevance, and adequacy of evidence presented to support the thesis of an argument.

Distinguish visuals that convey information from visuals that express a point of view.

Analyze visual arguments.

Recognize point of view or author bias in a text.

Analyze a students’ own argument through the lens of a reader.

Critique an author’s argument in students’ own writing.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

10. Evaluating, Synthesizing and Documenting Sources (Evaluating Evidence in Reading/Integrating Evidence in Writing (including documentation)

Define summary, paraphrase, and quotations and their function in supporting the thesis of a text.

Evaluate the strength and credibility of sources of evidence provided in a text.

Evaluate the strength and credibility of evidence provided in students’ own writing.

Evaluate the credibility and point of view of sources.

Evaluate graphics and visuals for audience, purpose, credibility and message.

Find evidence to support the arguments established in students’ own writing.

Integrate evidence in the form of summary.

Integrate evidence in the form of paraphrase.

Integrate evidence in the form of quotes.

Evaluate a piece of writing for appropriate documentation of evidence.

Document and cite evidence appropriately using MLA style.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

11. Analyzing and Writing in Response to a Writing Prompt

Use appropriate methods of analyzing writing prompts.

Apply study skills as necessary in the analysis of writing prompts.

Use planning, time management, and the writing process strategically in responding to writing prompts.

Demonstrate understanding of vocabulary in the context of the reading selections in this topic.

Unit 3: Grammar and Mechanics in the Context of Reading and Writing

1. Parts of Speech in Context

Recognize noun types and their functions.

Recognize common pronoun types and their functions.

Recognize common verb types and their functions.

Recognize and identify adjectives and adverbs and the words they describe.

Recognize and identify coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.

Recognize and identify prepositions.

Recognize interjections.

Identify the different parts of speech in a paragraph.

2. Verbs: Form, Tense, and Other Information

Differentiate verb form from verb tense.

Differentiate regular verbs from irregular verbs.

Identify and correct errors in both regular and irregular verb tense.

Recognize shifts in verb tense and edit for correctness.

Recognize the forms of irregular verbs to be, to have, and to do.

Identify and correct errors in both regular and irregular verb form.

Differentiate active from passive verbs.

Recognize verb forms: infinitives, participles, gerunds and how they function in a sentence.

Evaluate verb form and tense in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

Evaluate verb form and tense in essays and edit for correctness.

3. Sentence Elements

Identify the complete subject of a sentence.

Identify the complete predicate of a sentence.

Recognize the elements of a complete sentence.

Differentiate an independent clause from a dependent clause.

Evaluate a paragraph for complete sentences and edit for correctness.

4. Sentences: Coordination, Subordination, and Combinations

Recognize different sentence types: simple, compound, complex, compound-complex.

Expand simple sentences with clauses and phrases.

Differentiate coordination from subordination.

Form a compound sentence combining two equal ideas using coordinating conjunctions.

Form a compound sentence combining two complete sentences using a semicolon.

Combine sentences of parallel structure using coordination.

Evaluate compound sentences in paragraphs for excessive coordination and edit for effectiveness.

Evaluate compound sentences in essays for excessive coordination and edit for effectiveness.

Form a complex sentence emphasizing one idea over the other using subordinating conjunctions.

Evaluate complex sentences in paragraphs for excessive subordination and edit for effectiveness.

Evaluate complex sentences in essays for excessive subordination and edit for effectiveness.

Form a compound-complex sentence combining two or more simple sentences and one or more dependent clauses.

Combine sentences to show comparison and contrast using coordination and subordination.

Show the logical relationship between ideas in a sentence using a semicolon and a transitional word.

Evaluate paragraphs for effective sentence combinations using coordination and subordination.

Evaluate essays for effective sentence combinations using coordination and subordination.

5. Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices

Recognize sentence fragments and edit for correctness.

Recognize a run-on or a fused sentence and edit for correctness.

Recognize comma splices and edit for correctness.

Practice using the four common methods for correcting run-ons, fused sentences, or comma splices: a period and a capital letter; a comma and a joining word; semicolon, subordination.

Edit paragraphs to eliminate fragments, run-ons, and comma splices.

Edit essays to eliminate fragments, run-ons, and comma splices.

6. Sentence Variety

Recognize and apply different word groups to vary the patterns of sentences in a paragraph: -ing word groups, -ed word groups.

Recognize and apply different sentence openers to vary the patterns of sentences in a paragraph: -ly openers, to openers, prepositional phrase openers

Recognize and apply different word series to vary the patterns of sentences in a paragraph: adjectives in a series, verbs in a series.

Recognize and apply coordination and subordination to vary sentences.

Differentiate active from passive voice and edit for active voice.

Evaluate the sentence patterns in paragraphs and edit to vary for interest.

Evaluate the sentence patterns in essays and edit to vary for interest.

7. Subject-Verb Agreement

Determine whether the subject and verb in a sentence agree in number: singular subject = singular verb; plural subject = plural verb.

Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when words come between the subject and the verb: prepositional phrases, dependent clauses

Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the sentence contains a compound subject.

Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject is a collective noun.

Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject appears plural but is singular.

Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject is joined with either/or, neither/nor.

Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject is an indefinite pronoun.

Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the subject is who, which, or that.

Identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement when the verb comes before the subject.

Evaluate paragraphs for errors in subject-verb agreement and edit for correctness.

Evaluate essays for errors in subject-verb agreement and edit for correctness.

8. Pronouns: Reference, Agreement, and Case

Identify pronouns and their antecedents.

Identify and edit pronoun reference for accuracy.

Recognize indefinite pronouns and their functions.

Recognize and use correct pronoun case: as subjects, as objects, that show possession.

Recognize shifts in pronoun points-of-view.

Identify and correct pronoun confusion.

Evaluate use of pronoun reference, agreement, and case in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

Evaluate use of pronoun reference, agreement, and case in essays and edit for correctness.

9. Adjectives and Adverbs

Identify and correct common errors in adjective and adverb use.

Identify and correct errors in adjectives and adverbs that compare.

Identify and correct common errors in the use of irregular forms of adjectives and adverbs.

Recognize when to use well and good and bad and badly.

Identify and correct errors when adjectives and adverbs are absolute words.

Evaluate paragraphs for use of adjectives and adverbs and edit for correctness.

Evaluate essays for use of adjectives and adverbs and edit for correctness.

10. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers in Context

Differentiate misplaced modifiers from dangling modifiers.

Evaluate paragraphs for misplaced modifiers and edit for correctness.

Evaluate paragraphs for dangling modifiers and edit for correctness.

Evaluate essays for misplaced modifiers and edit for correctness.

Evaluate essays for dangling modifiers and edit for correctness.

11. Parallelism in Context

Differentiate parallelism from faulty parallelism.

Identify and correct faulty parallelism in a series.

Identify and correct faulty parallelism in headings, outlines and lists.

Identify and correct faulty parallelism in comparisons.

Evaluate paragraphs for faulty parallelism and edit for correctness.

Evaluate essays for faulty parallelism and edit for correctness.

12. End Punctuation: Periods, Question Marks, Exclamation Points

Determine whether a sentence is making a statement, asking a direct question, or expressing a strong feeling and apply the appropriate end punctuation for each.

Evaluate use of end punctuation in sentences or paragraphs and edit for overuse.

Evaluate use of end punctuation in sentences or paragraphs and edit for correctness.

13. Commas

Use a comma after introductory words.

Differentiate essential from non-essential information and insert or remove commas as appropriate.

Use commas to set off interrupting words.

Use commas with parts of dates, addresses, titles, and numbers.

Use commas to set off direct quotations.

Recognize and eliminate unnecessary use of commas.

Evaluate and edit paragraphs for comma use to add commas where appropriate and eliminate unnecessary commas.

Evaluate and edit essays for comma use to add commas where appropriate and eliminate unnecessary commas.

14. Apostrophes and Quotation Marks

Recognize the main uses of apostrophes: to form contractions, to show ownership or possession, to make numbers and letters plural.

Distinguish between contractions, possessive pronouns, and simple plurals.

Evaluate apostrophe use in paragraphs and edit for correctness.

Recognize the main uses of quotation marks: to set off direct quotations, to set off special phrases or words, to set around the titles of short works.

Demonstrate knowledge of how to use quotation marks with other forms of punctuation: commas, semicolons, colons, and end punctuation.

Differentiate a direct quotation from an indirect quotation and punctuate accordingly.

Recognize when to use single quotation marks versus double quotation marks and punctuate accordingly.

Evaluate a sentence or paragraph for special words or phrases that might require quotation marks.

Evaluate the use of quotation marks in a paragraph and edit for correctness.

15. Colons and Semicolons

Differentiate colons from semicolons.

Identify a colon in a sentence and recognize its function: to introduce a list, a long, direct quotation, or an explanation.

Identify a colon in other contexts and recognize its function: to indicate a ratio and time of day, to separate a title and a subtitle, to separate a city and publisher in a bibliographic entry.

Identify a semicolon in a sentence and recognize its function: to join two complete thoughts not already connected by a joining word or that includes a transitional word.

Recognize lengthy items in a series that need to be separated by a semicolon.

Evaluate a paragraph for use of colons and semicolons and edit for correctness.

Evaluate an essay for use of colons and semicolons and edit for correctness.

16. Other Punctuation

Identify parentheses in a sentence and recognize their function: to enclose extra information; to enclose numbers or letters in a list.

Distinguish between the dash and the hyphen.

Identify a dash in a sentence and recognize its function: to set off information within, at the beginning, and the end of a sentence for dramatic effect.

Identify a hyphen in a sentence and recognize its function: to make a compound adjective placed before a noun; to spell out fractions and compound numbers; to join some prefixes and suffixes.

Evaluate paragraphs for appropriate use of parentheses, dashes, and hyphens and eliminate those that are unnecessary.

Evaluate an essay for or appropriate use of parentheses, dashes, and hyphens and eliminate those that are unnecessary.

17. Capitalization

Apply the rules for capitalizing sentences.

Apply the rules for capitalizing direct and indirect quotations.

Apply the rules for capitalizing proper nouns and the pronoun “I.”

Apply the rules for capitalizing titles and subtitles from literature, music, film, television, magazines, and newspapers.

Apply the rules for capitalizing articles, prepositions, and joining words in titles and subtitles.

Apply the rules for capitalizing days of the week, months, and holidays.

Apply the rules for capitalizing organizations, companies, and associations.

Evaluate capitalization in a paragraph and edit for correctness.

Evaluate capitalization in an essay and edit for correctness.

18. Numbers and Abbreviations

Recognize the elements that must always be presented in numerical form: dates, times, addresses, percentages, exact sums of money, and parts of a book.

Apply consistent presentation of numbers in a series.

Recognize the most common situations in which the use of abbreviations in writing is acceptable: titles with proper names, time references, trade names or technical expressions.

Evaluate the use of periods in abbreviations and edit for correctness.

Evaluate the presentation of numbers and the use of abbreviations and edit for correctness.

19. Spelling and Word Use

Apply the three basic rules for improving spelling: change y to i; drop the final silent e; double the final consonant.

Recognize commonly confused words and use sentence context clues to decide on the correct word: homonyms; who, which, that; can, may.

Identify and replace inappropriate language choices: slang, euphemisms, cliches, sexist and biased words, pretentious or inflated words, vague and abstract words, expletives.

Differentiate denotation from connotation and recognize relationship to tone.

Evaluate a paragraph or essay for wordiness and edit to make more concise.

Evaluate a paragraph or essay for passive voice and edit to make more active.

Evaluate a paragraph or essay for repetition and edit to eliminate it.

Evaluate a paragraph or essay for omitted words and edit to fill these in.

Evaluate the tone of a paragraph or essay and edit language for consistency and appropriateness.

20. Comprehensive Editing (Holistic editing)

Evaluate paragraphs for appropriate grammar, punctuation, spelling, word choice, and mechanics and edit for correctness.

Evaluate essays for appropriate grammar, punctuation, spelling, word choice, and mechanics and edit for correctness.