Theories of Personality
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Part I Introduction

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Personality Theory

What Is Personality?

What Is a Theory?

Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity

Research in Personality Theory

PART II Psychodynamic Theories

CHAPTER 2 Freud: Psychoanalysis

Overview of Psychoanalytic Theory

Biography of Sigmund Freud

Levels of Mental Life

Provinces of the Mind

Dynamics of Personality

Defense Mechanisms

Stages of Development

Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory

Related Research

Critique of Freud

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 3 Adler: Individual Psychology

Overview of Individual Psychology

Biography of Alfred Adler

Introduction to Adlerian Theory

Striving for Success or Superiority

Subjective Perceptions

Unity and Self-Consistency of Personality

Social Interest

Style of Life

Creative Power

Abnormal Development

Applications of Individual Psychology

Related Research

Critique of Adler

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 4 Jung: Analytical Psychology

Overview of Analytical Psychology

Biography of Carl Jung

Levels of the Psyche

Dynamics of Personality

Causality and Teleology

Progression and Regression

Psychological Types

Development of Personality

Jung’s Methods of Investigation

Related Research

Critique of Jung

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 5 Klein: Object Relations Theory

Overview of Object Relations Theory

Biography of Melanie Klein

Introduction to Object Relations Theory

Psychic Life of the Infant


Psychic Defense Mechanisms


Later Views on Object Relations


Related Research vCritique of Object Relations Theory

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 6 Horney: Psychoanalytic Social Theory

Overview of Psychoanalytic Social Theory

Biography of Karen Horney

Introduction to Psychoanalytic Social Theory

Basic Hostility and Basic Anxiety

Compulsive Drives

Intrapsychic Conflicts

Feminine Psychology


Related Research

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 7 Fromm: Humanistic Psychoanalysis

Overview of Humanistic Psychoanalysis

Biography of Erich Fromm

Fromm’s Basic Assumptions

Human Needs

The Burden of Freedom

Character Orientations

Personality Disorders


Related Research

Critique of Fromm

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 8 Erikson: Post-Freudian Theory

Overview of Post-Freudian Theory

Biography of Erik Erikson

The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory

Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erikson’s Methods of Investigation

Related Research

Critique of Erikson

Concept of Humanity

Humanistic/Existential Theories

PART III Humanistic/Existential Theories

CHAPTER 9 Maslow: Holistic-Dynamic Theory

Overview of Holistic-Dynamic Theory

Biography of Abraham H. Maslow

Maslow’s View of Motivation


Philosophy of Science

Measuring Self-Actualization

The Jonah Complex


Related Research

Critique of Maslow

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 10 Rogers: Person-Centered Theory

Overview of Client-Centered Theory

Biography of Carl Rogers

Person-Centered Theory


The Person of Tomorrow vPhilosophy of Science

The Chicago Studies

Related Research

Critique of Rogers

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 11 May: Existential Psychology

Overview of Existential Psychology

Biography of Rollo May

Background of Existentialism

The Case of Philip




Care, Love, and Will

Freedom and Destiny

The Power of Myth



Related Research

Critique of May

Concept of Humanity

PART IV Dispositional Theories

CHAPTER 12 Allport: Psychology of the Individual

Overview of Allport’s Psychology of the Individual

Biography of Gordon Allport

Allport’s Approach to Personality Theory


The Study of the Individual

Related Research

Critique of Allport

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 13 McCrae and Costa’s Five Factor Trait


Overview of Trait and Factor Theories

The Pioneering Work of Raymond B. Cattell

Basics of Factor Analysis

The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory?

Biographies of Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr.

In Search of the Big Five

Related Research

Critique of Trait and Factor Theories

Concept of Humanity

PART V Biological/Evolutionary Theories

Chapter 14 Eysenck’s Biologically-Based Factor Theory

Overview of Biologically-Based Factor Theories

Eysenck’s Factor Theory

Dimensions of Personality

Measuring Personality

Biological Bases of Personality

Personality as a Predictor

Related Research

Critique of Eysenck’s Biologically Based Theory

Concept of Humanity

Key Terms and Concepts

Chapter 15 Buss: Evolutionary Theory of Personality

Overview of Evolutionary Theory of Personality

Biography of David Buss

Principles of Evolutionary Psychology

Evolutionary Theory of Personality

Common Misunderstandings in Evolutionary Theory

Related Research


Concepts of Humanity

Key Terms and Concepts

PART VI Learning Theories

CHAPTER 16 Skinner: Behavioral Analysis

Overview of Behavioral Analysis

Biography of B. F. Skinner

Precursors to Skinner’s Scientific Behaviorism

Scientific Behaviorism


The Human Organism

The Unhealthy Personality


Related Research

Critique of Skinner

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 17 Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory

Overview of Social Cognitive Theory

Biography of Albert Bandura


Triadic Reciprocal Causation

Human Agency


Dysfunctional Behavior


Related Research

Critique of Bandura

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 18 Rotter and Mischel: Cognitive Social

Learning Theory

Overview of Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Biography of Julian Rotter

Introduction to Rotter’s Social Learning Theory

Predicting Specific Behaviors

Predicting General Behaviors

Maladaptive Behavior


Introduction to Mischel’s Personality Theory

Biography of Walter Mischel

Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System

Cognitive-Affective Personality System Related Research

Critique of Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Concept of Humanity

CHAPTER 19 Kelly: Psychology of Personal Constructs

Overview of Personal Construct Theory

Biography of George Kelly

Kelly’s Philosophical Position

Personal Constructs

Applications of Personal Construct Theory

Related Research

Critique of Kelly

Photo Credits
Name Index
Subject Index