Psychology: Perspectives and Connections

Just because we “think” something doesn’t make it true.  Psychology: Perspectives and Connections is designed to move students beyond what may seem obvious to them and have them reevaluate the thoughts and beliefs they bring to the course.  Feist’s accessible approach to science helps students challenge their assumptions, understand research, and recognize that in Psychology, no one perspective tells the whole story.

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Table of Contents

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Foreword by Paul Ekman xxi

Preface xxii

1 Introduction to Psychology 2

What Is Psychology? 5

Psychology Defined 5

Why Should You Study Psychology? 6

Psychology in the Real World: Why Psychology Is Important to My Life 7

Subdisciplines of Psychology 8

The Origins of Psychology 11

A Brief History of the Practice of Clinical Psychology 11

A Brief History of Scientific Psychology 14

Psychological Perspectives: Explaining Human Behavior 20

Psychoanalytic-Psychodynamic 00

Behaviorism-Learning  00

Humanistic-Positive  00

Cognitive  00

Sociocultural/Cross-Cultural  00

Neuropsychological-Behavioral Genetic  00

Evolutionary  00

The Nature-Nurture Debate 20

The Evolution of Human Behavior 22

No One Perspective Tells the Whole Story in Psychology 26

Challenging Assumptions and Not Believing Everything You 

Think—The Art of Critical Thinking 26

Connections within and between Chapters 27

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Psychology 28

Chapter Review 30

2 Conducting Research in Psychology 32

The Nature of Science 35

Common Sense and Logic 35

The Limits of Observation 35

What Is Science? 36

The Scientific Method 38

Research Process 39

What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience 40

Research Designs in Psychology 41

Principles of Research Design 41

Descriptive Studies 42

Correlational Studies 47

Experimental Studies 49

Longitudinal Studies xx

Twin-Adoption Studies xx

Meta-Analysis xx

Big Data xx

Challenging Assumptions in the Objectivity of Experimental Research 53

Commonly Used Measures of Psychological Research 54

Self-Report Measures 54

Behavioral Measures 56

Physiological Measures 57

Making Sense of Data with Statistics 57

Descriptive Statistics 58

Inferential Statistics 59

Psychology in the Real World: Challenge the Assumptions of Advertisers’ Statistics 60

Research Ethics 62

Scientific Misconduct xx

Ethical Treatment of Human Participants 62

Ethical Treatment of Animals 64

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Psychological Research 66

Chapter Review 67

3 The Biology of Behavior 70

Genes and Behavior 73

Principles of Behavioral Genetics xx

The Connection between Genes and Behavior is Complex 74

The Relative Effects of Genes and Environment Can Be Teased Apart xx

The Environment Can Change Gene Expression: Epigenetics xx

The Nervous System 78

Organization of the Nervous System 78

The Cells of the Nervous System: Glial Cells and Neurons 79

Common Neurotransmitters 85

Summary of the Steps in Neural Transmission 89

The Brain 90

Evolution of the Human Brain 90

Overview of Brain Regions 92

Psychology in the Real World: Neuroprosthetics: Thought Control of Artificial Limbs 99

Brain Plasticity and Neurogenesis 100

Challenging Assumptions about Neural Growth in the Adult Brain 104

Early Evidence of Neurogenesis in Adults 104

Key Figures in the Discovery of Neural Growth in Adults 104

Measuring the Brain 106

Electroencephalography 106

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional MRI (fMRI) 106

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 107

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) xxx

Near Infrared Spectrometry (NIRS) xxx

Research Process 108

The Endocrine System 109

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in the Biology

of Behavior 111

Chapter Review 113

4 Sensing and Perceiving Our World 116

The Long, Strange Trip from Sensation to Perception 119

Basic Sensory Processes 119

Principles of Perception 119

Vision 123

Sensing Visual Stimuli 123

Perceiving Visual Stimuli 130

Hearing 140

The Physics of Sound and the Psychophysics of Hearing 140

The Ear 142

Psychology in the Real World: Hearing Loss Can Happen in Young People Too 143

Hearing in the Brain 143

The Bodily Senses 144

Touch 145

Pain 145

The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste 148

Smell (Olfaction) 148

Taste 149

Synesthesia 151

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Sensation and Perception 152

Research Process 154

Chapter Review 156

5 Human Development 158

The Developing Fetus 161

Stages of Prenatal Development 161

Brain and Sensory Development before Birth 162

Nature and Nurture Influences on Fetal Development 165

Prenatal Personality Development 166

The Developing Infant and Child 167

Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood 167

Early Cognitive Development 171

Psychology in the Real World: Musical Training Changes the Brain 172

Development of Moral Reasoning 178

Early Socioemotional Development 181

Research Process 179

The Developing Adolescent 187

Physical Development in Adolescence 188

Cognitive and Brain Development in Adolescence 188

Social Development in Adolescence 191

Personality Development in Adolescence xxx

The Developing Adult 193

Early Adulthood 193

Middle Adulthood 197

Late Adulthood 198

Death and Dying 201

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Human Development 202

6 Consciousness 208

What Is Consciousness? 210

Theories of Consciousness xxx

Two Dimensions of Consciousness: Wakefulness and Awareness 211

Minimal Consciousness xxx

Moderate Consciousness 213

Full Consciousness 213

Attention: Focusing Consciousness 214

Selective Attention 214

Psychology in the Real World: The Hazards of Distracted Driving 218

Sustained Attention 216

Multitasking: The Implications of Shifting Attention 217

Training Consciousness: Meditation 220

Meditation and Conscious Experience 221

Meditation Training and the Brain 221

Sleeping and Dreaming 222

Sleeping 222

Research Process 223

Dreaming 231

Hypnosis 233

Altering Consciousness with Drugs 236

Depressants 236

Stimulants 240

Hallucinogens 242

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Consciousness 245

Chapter Review 246

7 Memory 248

Forming Memories 251

Four Steps in Forming Memories xxx

Aids to Memory Formation xxx

Impediments to Memory Formation xxx

Types of Memory xxx

Three Major Types of Memory xxx

Memory and the Brain xxx

Neuroplasticity and Memory xxx

Psychology in the Real World: Manipulating Memory with Drugs and Drinks 266

Brain Regions Most Involved in Memory xxx

Challenging Assumptions in Brain Stimulation and Memory 268

Research Process 270

Malleability of Memory xxx

Reconsolidation xxx

Selective and Divided Attention xxx

Eyewitness Testimony xxx

False Memories xxx

Recovered Memories xxx

Suggestibility and Misinformation xxx

Forgetting and Memory Loss xxx

Forms of Forgetting 276

Memory Loss Caused by Brain Injury and Disease 279

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Memory 280

Chapter Review 282

8 Learning 284

Basic Processes of Learning 287

Association 287

Conditioning Models of Learning 287

Classical Conditioning 288

Operant Conditioning 292

Challenging Assumptions about Conditioning Models of Learning 301

Psychology in the Real World: Behavior Modification for the Treatment of Attentional Disorders 314

Social Learning Theory 306

How Nature and Nurture Work Together in Learning 310

Imprinting 311

Imitation, Mirror Neurons, and Learning 312

Research Process 313

Synaptic Change during Learning 314

Experience, Enrichment, and Brain Growth 316

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Learning 317

9 Language and Thought 322

Language 325

The Nature of Language 325

The Evolution of Language in Humans 326

Language Development in Individuals 326

Theories of Language Acquisition 329

Can Other Species Learn Human Language? 333

Language, Culture, and Thought 335

Research Process 338

Thinking, Reasoning, and Decision Making 337

How Do We Represent Thoughts in Our Minds? 339

How Do We Reason about Evidence? 342

Psychology in the Real World: Critical Thinking and Detecting Fake News 346

How Do We Make Judgments and Decisions? 345

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Language and Thought 352

Chapter Review 354

10 Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity 356

Intelligence 358

Defining Intelligence 359

Theories of Intelligence 359

Measuring Intelligence 363

Psychology in the Real World: Bringing Multiple Intelligences to School 364

Extremes of Intelligence 369

The Nature and Nurture of Human Intelligence 373

Group Differences in Intelligence Scores 377

Non-Western Views of Intelligence 378

Problem Solving 379

Types of Problems 380

Solution Strategies 381

Obstacles to Solutions 382

Creativity 383

What Is Creativity? 383

Stages of Creative Problem Solving 384

Creativity and the Brain 384

Research Process 386

Cognitive Processes in Creative Thinking 387

The Creative Personality 388

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity 389

Chapter Review 391

11 Motivation and Emotion 394

Motivation 397

Models of Motivation 397

Hunger: Survival of the Individual 401

Sex: Survival of the Species 407

Research Process 410

The Needs to Belong (Affiliation) and to Excel 413

Motivation in the Workplace 415

Emotion 418

What Are Emotions? 418

Emotion as a Process 422

Psychology in the Real World: Botox and Emotion 430

Emotion and the Brain 431

How Culture Impacts Emotion Expression 433

Gender and Emotion 434

Emotional Intelligence 435

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Motivation and Emotion 437

Chapter Review 439

12 Stress and Health 442

Stress 444

Stress as Stimulus or Response 445

The Physiology of Stress 447

Coping: The Management of Stress 453

Coping Strategies 453

The Positive Psychology of Coping 456

Psychology in the Real World: Does Stress Cause Aging? 458

How Stress and Coping Affect Health 459

The Birth of Psychoneuroimmunology 461

Psychological Risk Factors for Heart Disease 464

The Gut-Brain Axis: How the Critters in Our Intestines Affect Health, Mood, and Behavior xxx

Research on Health-Relevant Behavior 466

Research Process 470

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Stress and Health 472

Chapter Review 473

13 Personality: The Uniqueness of the Individual 476

Defining Personality 478

Perspectives on Personality 480

Psychoanalytic Theories 487

Humanistic-Positive Psychological Theories 494

Social-Cognitive Learning Theories 496

Trait Theories 496

Evolutionary-Biological Theories 498

The Origins of Personality 487

Genetics and Personality 481

Temperament and the Fetal Environment 483

Personality and Culture: Universality and Differences 483

Challenging Assumptions in Animal Personality 485

Research Process 509

How Is Personality Measured? 500

Behavioral Observation 500

Interviewing 501

Projective Tests 501

Personality Questionnaires 501

Social Network Measurement of Personality 502

Psychology in the Real World: Personality and Career Interest and Job Performance 504

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Personality 506

Chapter Review xxx

14 Social Behavior 512

Group Living and Social Influence 515

Conformity 515

Minority Social Influence 517

Obedience 518

Social Perception 521

Attribution 521

Detecting Deception 522

Schemas 523

Stereotypes 523

Exclusion and Inclusion 524

Psychology in the Real World: The Social Psychology of Social Networks 526

Prejudice and Discrimination 526

Challenging Assumptions in Social Behavior 528

Attitudes and Behavior 529

The Nature and Nurture of Attitudes 530

Attitude Change 530

Social Relations 533

The Nature and Nurture of Aggression 533

Prosocial Behavior 535

Liking, Attraction, and Love 539

Research Process 540

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Social Behavior 544

Chapter Review 546

15 Psychological Disorders 548

Defining Psychological Disorders 551

Neurodevelopmental Disorders 555

Types of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 555

Causes of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 556

Schizophrenia 558

Major Symptoms of Schizophrenia 558

Origins of Schizophrenia 559

Depressive Disorders 563

Origins of Depression 565

Research Process 566

Bipolar Disorder 567

Causes of Bipolar Disorder 568

Anxiety Disorders 569

Generalized Anxiety Disorder 570

Panic Disorder 570

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder) 571

Agoraphobia 571

Specific Phobias 572

Origins of Anxiety Disorders 572

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 574

Causes of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 575

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 575

Dissociative Disorders 576

Dissociative Identity Disorder 576

Causes of Dissociative Disorders 577

Somatic Symptom Disorders 577

Personality Disorders 578

Odd-Eccentric Personality Disorders 578

Dramatic-Emotional Personality Disorders 579

Anxious-Fearful Personality Disorders 580

Origins of Personality Disorders 580

Psychology in the Real World: Can Internet Use Become an Addiction? 582

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Psychological Disorders 583

Chapter Review 585

16 Treatment of Psychological Disorders 588

Biomedical Treatments for Psychological Disorders 590

Drug Therapies 591

Psychosurgery 595

Electric and Magnetic Therapies 595

Challenging Assumptions in the Treatment of Severe Depression 597

Effectiveness of Biomedical Treatments 598

Psychological Treatments for Psychological Disorders 600

Psychoanalytic Therapy 600

Humanistic/Positive Therapy 602

Behavior Therapies 603

Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments 603

Group Therapy 605

Effectiveness of Psychological Treatments 607

Research Process 608

Technology-Based Treatments for Psychological Disorders 609

Effectiveness of Technology-Based Therapy 610

Combined Approaches 610

Drugs and Psychotherapy 610

Integrative Therapy 610

Mindfulness Training and Psychotherapy 611

Effectiveness of Combined Approaches 612

Psychology in the Real World: How to Choose a Therapist 614

Emerging Therapies 614

Psychedelic Medicine: A New Hope xxx

Preventing Disorders 617

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in the Treatment of Psychological Disorders 618

Chapter Review 620

McGraw-Hill Psychology’s APA Style Documentation Guide

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Credits C-1

Name Index NI-1

Subject Index SI-1