Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology
Table of Contents

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Chapter 1 The Study of Anatomy and Physiology

1.1 Anatomy—The Structural Basis of Human Function

1.2 Physiology—The Functional Relevance of Human Structure

1.3 The Human Body Plan

1.4 The Language of Medicine

Chapter 2 Life, Matter, and Energy

2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

2.2 Water, Mixtures, and pH

2.3 Organic Compounds

2.4 Energy and Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Cytology—The Cellular Level of Organization

3.1 The General Structure of Cells

3.2 The Cell Surface

3.3 The Cell Interior

3.4 The Life Cycle of Cells

Chapter 4 Histology—The Tissue Level of Organization

4.1 The Study of Tissues

4.2 Epithelial Tissue

4.3 Connective Tissue

4.4 Nervous and Muscular Tissues—The Excitable Tissues

4.5 Glands and Membranes

4.6 Tissue Growth, Development, Repair, and Death

Chapter 5 The Integumentary System

5.1 The Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue

5.2 Accessory Organs

Chapter 6 The Skeletal System

6.1 Skeletal Structure and Function

6.2 Bone Development and Metabolism

6.3 The Axial Skeleton

6.4 The Appendicular Skeleton

6.5 Joints

Chapter 7 The Muscular System

7.1 Muscular Tissues and Cells

7.2 Physiology of Skeletal Muscle

7.3 Cardiac and Smooth Muscle

7.4 Anatomy of the Muscular System

Chapter 8 The Nervous System I—Nerve Cells, the Spinal Cord, and Reflexes

8.1 Cells and Tissues of the Nervous System

8.2 The Physiology of Neurons

8.3 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Reflexes

Chapter 9 The Nervous System II—The Brain, Cranial Nerves, and Autonomic Nervous System

9.1 Overview of the Brain

9.2 Principal Divisions of the Brain

9.3 Multiregional Brain Functions

9.4 The Cranial Nerves

9.5 The Autonomic Nervous System

Chapter 10 The Sense Organs

10.1 Receptors and Sensations

10.2 The General Senses

10.3 The Chemical Senses—Taste and Smell

10.4 The Ear—Hearing and Equilibrium

10.5 The Eye and Vision

Chapter 11 The Endocrine System

11.1 Overview of the Endocrine System

11.2 Endocrine Physiology

11.3 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

11.4 Other Endocrine Glands and Tissues

11.5 Stress Physiology

Chapter 12 The Circulatory System I—Blood

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Erythrocytes

12.3 Leukocytes

12.4 Platelets

Chapter 13 The Circulatory System II—Heart and Blood Vessels

13.1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System

13.2 Gross Anatomy of the Heart

13.3 Physiology of the Heart

13.4 General Anatomy of Blood Vessels

13.5 Physiology of Circulation

13.6 Circulatory Routes and Blood Vessels

Chapter 14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity

14.1 The Lymphatic System

14.2 Nonspecific Resistance

14.3 Features of Adaptive Immunity

14.4 Cellular and Humoral Immunity

Chapter 15 The Respiratory System

15.1 Functions and Anatomy of the Respiratory System

15.2 Pulmonary Ventilation

15.3 Gas Exchange and Transport

Chapter 16 The Urinary System

16.1 Functions of the Urinary System

16.2 Anatomy of the Kidney

16.3 Glomerular Filtration

16.4 Tubular Resorption and Secretion

16.5 Water Conservation

16.6 Urine Storage and Elimination

16.7 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance

Chapter 17 The Digestive System

17.1 Overview of the Digestive System

17.2 The Mouth through Esophagus

17.3 The Stomach

17.4 The Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

17.5 The Small Intestine

17.6 Chemical Digestion and Absorption

17.7 The Large Intestine

Chapter 18 Nutrition and Metabolism

18.1 Nutrition

18.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism

18.3 Lipid and Protein Metabolism

18.4 Metabolic States and Metabolic Rate

18.5 Energy Balance and Appetite Regulation

18.6 Body Heat and Thermoregulation

Chapter 19 The Reproductive System

19.1 Essentials of Sexual Reproduction

19.2 The Male Reproductive System

19.3 The Female Reproductive System

19.4 The Production and Union of Sex Cells

19.5 Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Lactation

Chapter 20 Human Development and Aging

20.1 Fertilization and Preembryonic Development

20.2 The Embryonic and Fetal Stages

20.3 The Neonate

20.4 Aging, Senescence, and Death

Appendix A: Answer Key

Appendix B: Health Science Careers

Appendix C: Symbols, Weights, and Measures

Appendix D: Biomedical Word Roots, Prefixes, and