The Student Writer https://www.mheducation.com/cover-images/Jpeg_250-high/0073405906.jpeg 13 9780073405902
The Student Writer

The Student Writer

Grade Levels: 13
By Barbara Fine Clouse
Copyright: 2013
Publication Date: July 9, 2012
MHID: 0073405906
ISBN 13: 9780073405902

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New Features

Thoroughly revised coverage of research conforms to new MLA guidelines and gives special attention to electronic research and online citations.

“Myths about Sources” in each pattern of development section dispel common misconceptions students have about using sources.

New, more analytic student and professional essays on high-interest topics


Key Features

A Focus on Writing Strategies: Through writing strategies, students are given extensive support at every stage of the writing process. Students are shown a variety strategies for selecting topics, identifying audience and purpose, generating ideas, and revising. They are encouraged to sample some or all of them as they work to improve their writing processes. Additionally, students are given suggestions for securing feedback from reliable readers.

An Emphasis on Revision: “The Student Writer at Work" sections provide strategies for evaluating drafts and making changes. These sections help students understand the importance of revision, and they offer specific tools for revision. Guidelines for giving and receiving reliable feedback on their drafts help students build peer response into their revision processes.

Substantial Coverage of Argument: A focus on issues and claims helps students write sound thesis statements for argumentation. A detailed discussion of kinds of persuasive purposes helps students establish reasonable goals for their argument papers. A detailed discussion of kinds of audiences helps students gear their supporting details to the level of resistance their claim is likely to meet. Explanations of logical, emotional, and ethical appeals and combining patterns of development help students address their audiences and argue their claims effectively. A full-color casebook of images—advertisements, news photographs, cartoons, and diagrams— offers students insight into the ways arguments can be made in visual form. Three student essays, one that includes source material, illustrate effective argumentation.

Coverage of Avoiding Plagiarism: “Being a Responsible Writer” sections discuss ethical concerns associated with writing in the major patterns of development. "Using Sources for a Purpose" boxes include help on avoiding plagiarism. Plagiarism also receives a new emphasis in the revised research chapters, particularly issues of electronic plagiarism.

Emphasis on Writing outside the Classroom: Each Part 2 chapter includes within its opening section discussion highlighting ways to use the various patterns of development beyond the writing classroom: across the curriculum, in the workplace, and in daily life.

Coverage of Visual Arguments: A full-color casebook of images—advertisements, news photographs, cartoons, and diagrams—offers students insight into the ways arguments can be made in visual form.

Coverage of Essay Exams: Chapter 16 has been expanded to include process guidelines for writing essay examination answers, strategies for reducing anxiety, and a sample answer for study.

The Student Writer

Part 1 Strategies for Reading and Writing


Chapter 1: The Reading-Writing Connection


Reading Analytically

Step One: Preview the Material
Step Two: Read Thoughtfully
Step Three: Review and Write for Retention
A Sample Marked Text
John Holt “School Is Bad for Children”
Writing in Response to Reading
Writing a Summary
Howard Rohan “What John Holt Finds Wrong with Schools”
Sharing Personal Reactions and Associations
Susan Schantz “School Was Bad for Me”
Evaluating an Author’s Ideas
Essays for Reading and Response
Amy Tan “Democracy”
Bill McKibben “The Environmental Issue from Hell”
Analyzing Visual Content
Analyzing Advertisements
Analyzing Photographs
Analyzing Charts and Graphs

Chapter 2 Getting Started

The Writing Process
Six Areas of the Writing Process
Choosing a Writing Topic
Pay Attention to the World around You
Freewrite
Fill in the Blanks
Narrow a Broad Topic
Freewrite
Write a List
Consider the Patterns of Development
Map Your Broad Topic
Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Discovering a Writing Topic
Establishing Your Purpose
Identifying and Assessing Your Audience
Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Establishing Purpose and Identifying and Assessing Audience
Discovering Ideas to Develop Your Topic
Freewrite
Write a List
Answer Questions
Write a Map
Write a Letter
Investigate Sources
Keep a Journal
Working Collaboratively: Discovering Ideas
Prewriting at the Computer
Process Guidelines: Breaking Through Writer’s Block
Developing a Preliminary Thesis
The Qualities of an Effective Thesis
Process Guidelines: How to Draft Your Preliminary Thesis
Process Guidelines: The Sequence of Your Writing Process
Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Discovering Ideas and Developing a Preliminary Thesis
Writing Assignment


Chapter 3 Organizing and Drafting

Process Guidelines: Evaluating Your Ideas
Ordering Your Ideas
Chronological Order
Spatial Order
Progressive Order
Outlining
The Formal Outline
Outline Cards
The Outline Worksheet
The Outline Tree
The Scratch Outline
Process Guidelines: Outlining

Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Outlining
Writing Your First Draft
Structuring Your Essay
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essay
Marcie Katz Banning Alcohol on College Campuses
The Introduction
Process Guidelines: Drafting Introductions
Body Paragraphs
Qualities of an Effective Topic Sentence
Placement of the Topic Sentence
The Implied Topic Sentence
Qualities of an Effective Supporting Details
When to Begin a New Paragraph
Process Guidelines: Drafting Body Paragraphs
The Conclusion
Process Guidelines: Drafting Conclusions
Drafting the Title of Your Essay
Anthony’s Essay in Progress: The First Draft
Writing Assignment


Chapter 4 Revising for Content and Organization

Process Guidelines: Preparing to Revise
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: Revising Content
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: Revising Organization
Achieving Coherence
Use Transitions to Achieve Coherence
Use Repetition to Achieve Coherence
Use Transitions and Repetition to Achieve Coherence between Paragraphs
Working Collaboratively: Revising with Reader Response
Process Guidelines: Revising with Reader Response
Process Guidelines: Breaking through Writer’s Block
Revising at the Computer
Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Revising the First Draft


Chapter 5 Revising for Effective Expression

Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: Revising Sentences
Use Active Voice
Use Coordination
Use Subordination
Achieve Sentence Variety
Use Parallel Structure
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: Revising Diction
Use an Appropriate Level of Diction
Use Words with an Appropriate Connotation
Avoid Colloquial Language
Use Specific Diction
Use Simple Diction
Use Gender-Neutral, Inoffensive Language
Eliminate Wordiness
Avoid Clichés
Process Guidelines: Revising Sentences and Words Computer Tips for Revising Sentences and Words
Anthony’s Essay in Progress: The Final Draft


Part 2 Patterns of Development

Chapter 6 Description

Why Is Description Important?
Occasions for Writing: Description across the Disciplines and Beyond
Combining Description with Other Patterns
Selecting Detail
Focus Your Description with a Dominant Impression
Determine Your Need for Objective and Subjective Description
Use Concrete Sensory Detail
Use Similes, Metaphors, and Personification
Consider Your Purpose and Audience
Be a Responsible Writer
Organizing Description
Visualizing a Descriptive Essay
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
Adell Lindsey “A Day at the Fair”
Jerry Silberman “My First Flight”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
James Tuite “The Sounds of the City”
Lynn Sherr “Anguished Cries in a Place of Silence”
Combining Patterns of Development
Suzanne Berne “Where Nothing Says Everything”
Organization Note: Short Paragraphs
Description in an Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Writing Description

Chapter 7 Narration

Why Is Narration Important?
Occasions for Writing: Narration across the Disciplines and Beyoe
Combining Narration with Other Patterns
Selecting Detail
Answer the Journalist’s Questions
Write Dialogue
Describe a Person, Place, or Scene
Tell Your Story for a Reason
Consider Your Purpose and Audience
Be a Responsible Writer
Using Sources for a Purpose
Organizing Narration
Visualizing a Narrative Essay
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
Donald J. Monaco “The Ball Game”
Brian DeWolf “The Great Buffalo Hunt”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Paul Hemphill “The Girl in Gift Wrap”
Maya Angelou “The Boys”
Combining Patterns of Development
Anwar Accawi “The Telephone”
Punctuation Note: Parentheses
Narration in an Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Writing Narration

Chapter 8 Exemplification

Why Is Exemplification Important?
Occasions for Writing: Exemplification across the Disciplines and Beyond
Combining Exemplification with Other Patterns
Selecting Detail
Consider Examples from a Variety of Sources
Use Description and Narration as Examples
Use Hypothetical Examples
Use the Right Number of Examples
Consider Your Purpose and Audience
Be a Responsible Writer
Organizing Exemplification
Visualizing an Exemplification Essay
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
Delilah Rawlins “Ocean of Tears”
Ken Hamner “Let’s Just Ban Everything”
Student Essay with Research
Thomas Baird “Media Stereotyping of Muslims as Terrorists”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Harold Krents “Darkness at Noon”
Dawn Turner Trice “Shoddy Service”
Combining Patterns of Development
Harvey A. Silverglate and Greg Lukianoff “Speech Codes: Alive and Well at Colleges”
Style Note: Sarcasm
Exemplification in anl Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Writing Exemplification


Chapter 9 Process Analysis

Why Is Process Analysis Important?
Occasions for Writing: Process Analysis across the Disciplines and Beyond
Combining Process Analysis with Other Patterns
Selecting Detail
Include All the Important Steps
Explain How a Step is Performed
Explain the Significance of a Step or Why It Is Performed
Explain Trouble Spots and What Not to Do
Mention Necessary Items and Define Unfamiliar Terms
Include Examples and Description
Use Visuals
Consider Your Purpose and Audience
Be a Responsible Writer
Organizing a Process Analysis
Visualizing a Process Analysis Essay
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
“A Visit to Candyland”
Anthony Bello “Feng Shui in the Bedroom and Workplace”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Kirby W. Stanat “How to Take a Job Interview”
Ben McGrath “Wicked Wind”
Combining Patterns of Development
Eric L. Wee “Annie Smith Swept Here”
Sthle Note: Point of View
Process Analysis in an Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Writing Process Analysis


Chapter 10 Comparison-Contrast

Why Is Comparison-Contrast Important?
Occasions for Writing: Comparison-Contrast across the Disciplines and Beyond
Combining Comparison-Contrast with Other Patterns
Selecting Detail
Include Enough Points of Comparison and Contrast
Draw on Other Patterns to Explain Points of Comparison and Contrast
Maintain Balance between the Points Discussed
Consider Your Audience and Purpose
Be a Responsible Writer
Organizing Comparison-Contrast
Visualizing a Comparison-Contrast Essay
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
Gus Spirtos “The Human and the Superhuman: Two Very Different Heroes”
Maria Scarsella “Like Mother like Daughter”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Rachel Carson “A Fable for Tomorrow”
Suzanne Britt “That Lean and Hungry Look”
Combining Patterns of Development
James Poniewozik “This Is Your Nation on Steroids”
Development Note: Dialogue
Comparison-Contrast in anImage
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Writing Comparison-Contrast

Chapter 11 Cause-and-Effect Analysis

Why Is Cause-and-Effect Analysis Important?
Occasions for Writing: Cause-and-Effect Analysis across the Disciplines and Beyond
Combining Cause-and-Effect Analysis with Other Patterns
Selecting Detail
Report Multiple Causes and Effects
Identify Underlying Causes and Effects
Prove That Something Is a Cause or Effect
Identify Immediate and Remote Causes
Reproduce Causal Chains
Explain Why Something Is or Is Not a Cause or an Effect
Consider Your Audience and Purpose
Be a Responsible Writer
Organizing Cause-and-Effect Analysis
Visualizing Cause-and-Effect Analysis
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
Cammie Bullock “Mom, There’s a Coyote in the Backyard!”
John Selzer “Athletes on Drugs: It’s Not So Hard to Understand”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Anne Roiphe “Why Marriages Fail”
Suzanne Sievert “It’s Not Just How We Play That Matters”
Combining Patterns of Development
Jay Walljasper “Our Schedules, Ourselves”
Diction Note: Specific Diction
Cause-and-Effect Analysis in an Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Writing Cause-and-Effect Analysis

Chapter 12 Definition

Why Is Definition Important?
Occasions for Writing: Definition across the Disciplines and Beyond
Combining Definition with Other Patterns
Selecting Detail
Write a Stipulative Definition
Draw on Other Patterns of Development
Compare or Contrast the Term with Related Words
Explain What Your Term Is Not
Consider Your Audience and Purpose
Be a Responsible Writer
Organizing Definition
Visualizing a Definition Essay
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
Maria Lopez “Parenthood: Don’t Count on Sleeping until They Move Out”
Melissa Greco “What Is Writer’s Block”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Nicholas Thompson “Hero Inflation”
Margo Kaufman “My Way!”
Combining Patterns of Development
Dave Barry “The Pajama Game”
Development Note: Questions
Definition in an Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines for Writing Definition

Chapter 13 Classification and Division

Why Are Classification and Division Important?
Occasions for Writing: Definition across the Disciplines and Beyond
Combining Classification and Division with Other Patterns
Selecting Detail
Have a Principle of Classification or Division
Be Sure All Categories or Components Conform to Your Principle of Classification or Division
Use Mutually Exclusive Categories
Explain Each Category or Component
Consider Your Audience and Purpose
Be a Responsible Writer
Organizing Classification and Division
Visualizing Classification and Division
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
Anita Selfe “Grocery Shoppers”
Ray Harkleroad “Horror Movies”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Russell Baker “The Plot Against People”
Judith Viorst “The Truth about Lying”
Kesaya E. Noda “Growing Up Asian in America”
Combining Patterns of Development
Martin Luther King, Jr. “The Ways of Meeting Oppression”
Punctuation Note: The Dash
Division in an Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Writing Classification and Division


Chapter 14 Combining Patterns of Development

Why Is Combining Patterns Important?
Occasions for Writing: Combining Patterns across the Disciplines and Beyond
Combining Classification and Division with Other Patterns
Selecting and Organizing Detail
Learning from Another Writer: A Student Essay
Cindy Apostolos “The Many Ways to Watch a Show”
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Julia Alvarez “Hold the Mayonnaise”
Angie Cannon and Vince Beiser “Juvenile Injustice”
Peg Tyre “Boy Brains, Girl Brains”
Development Note: Quoting Authorities
Combining Patterns in an Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Combining Patterns


Part Three Using the Patterns of Development


Chapter 15 Argumentation

Why Is Argumentation Important?
Occasions for Writing: Argumentation across the Disciplines and Beyond
Finding an Issue and Establishing Your Claim
Consider Your Audience and Purpose
Kinds of Support
Logical Appeals
Sources of Reasons and Evidence
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Avoiding Logical Fallacies
Emotional Appeals
Ethical Appeals
Raising and Countering Objections
Creating Goodwill
Using the Patterns of Development
Be a Responsible Writer
Organizing an Argument Essay
Visualizing an Argument Essay
Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays
Michael Weiss “It’s Just Too Easy”
Cheryl Sateri “What’s for Lunch? Fast Food in the Public Schools"
Student Essay with Research
Mary E. Fischer “Should Obscene Art Be Funded by the Government?”
Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work
Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays
Wayne M. Joseph “Why I Dread Black History Month”
John McCain “Torture’s Terrible Toll”
Alan M. Dershowitz “The Case for Torture Warrants”
Style Note: Emphasis
Argumentation in an Image
Suggestions for Writing
Process Guidelines: Writing Argumentation

Chapter 16 Conducting Research

When to Research
The Research Process
Choose a Broad Research Paper Topic
Narrow Your Topic
Understand Your Purpose
Understand the Terms of the Assignment
Use Strategies for Narrowing a Topic
Skim Source Materials
Draft a Preliminary Thesis
Locate Sources
Consider the Kind of Information You Need
Use the Catalog to Locate Books
Use Reference Works
Use Indexes to Locate Periodical Material
Search the Internet
Do Field Research
Compile a Working Bibliography
Evaluate Your Sources
Take Notes
Reconsider Your Preliminary Thesis
Outline
Write Your First Draft
Document Source Material
What to Document
How To Document Source Material
Introducing Source Material
Writing Parenthetical Text Citations
Writing the Works Cited Page*
Using APA Documentation
How to Avoid Plagiarism
Learning from Other Writers: A Student Research Paper
Julie Cooper “Genetically Modified Food: Watching What We Eat”

Chapter 17 Writing with Sources and Using Proper Documentation

Outlining
Writing Your First Draft
Plagiarism
Being a Responsible Writer
Documenting Source Material
Revising and Editing Your Research Paper
Learning from Other Writers: A Student Research Paper
Julie Cooper, "Genetically Modified Food: Watching What We Eat"

Chapter 18 Assessment: Assembling a Writing Portfolio and Writing Essay Examination Answers

The Writing Portfolio
The Purposes of a Writing Portfolio
How To Assemble Your Portfolio
What to Include in a Self-Reflection Essay
Essay Examination Answers
Process Guidelines: Writing Essay Examination Answers
Strategies for Reducing Anxiety
A Sample Essay Examination Answer

Chapter 19 Writing about Literature
How to Read Literature
How to Write about Literature
Learning from Other Writers: A Student Essay with Research
Michael Hambuchen “Symbol and Theme in ‘Coca Cola and Coca Frio’"
A Short Story and Poem for Response
Saki (H.H. Munro) “The Open Window”
John Heaviside “A Gathering of Deafs”


Part Four A Guide to Frequently Occurring Errors

Chapter 20 Word Choice

Troublesome Phrasings
Phrasings That Announce Your Intent
Unnecessary or Faulty Modifiers
Faulty Synonyms
Etc.
Faulty Grammar and Usage
ESL Note: Idioms
Double Negatives (dn)
Frequently Confused Words

Chapter 21 Sentence Fragments

Finding Sentence Fragments
Correcting Sentence Fragments
ESL Note: The Past Participe and Passive Voice

Chapter 22 Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices

Finding Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices
Correcting Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices
ESL Note: Commas and Main Clauses

Chapter 23 Verbs

Verb Forms: Regular and Irregular Verbs
ESL Note: Incorrect Use of –D and –ED Endings
ESL Note: Use of Am with the Present Participle
Irregular Verb Forms
Verb Forms: Be
ESL Note: Use of Has and Have with Been
-S and –ES Forms
-D and ED Forms
Subject-Verb Agreement
Compound Subjects
Subject and Verb Separated
Inverted Order
Indefinite Pronouns
Collective Nouns
Relative Pronouns
ESL Note: Singular Verbs and Noncount Nouns
Tense Shifts
Voice Shifts

Chapter 24 Pronouns

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Compound Subjects
Collective Nouns
Indefinite Pronouns
Gender-Neutral Pronouns
Pronoun Reference
Ambiguous Reference
Unstated Reference
Person Shifts
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
Pronoun Case
Pronouns in Compounds
Pronouns after Forms of To Be
Pronouns in Comparisons
Pronouns Followed by Nouns
Who, Whoever, Whom, and Whomever
ESL Note: Pronoun Reference and Who, Whom, Which, or That

Chapter 25 Modifiers

Adjectives and Adverbs
Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs
ESL Note: A, An, and The
Dangling Modifiers
Misplaced Modifiers

Chapter 26 Punctuation

The Comma
Commas with Items in a Series
Commas with Introductory Elements
Commas to Set Off Nouns of Direct Address
Commas with Nonessential Elements
Commas with Interrupters
Commas with Main Clauses
Commas between Coordinate Modifiers, Commas for Clarity, and Commas to Separate Contrasting Elements
When Not to Use a Comma
The Semicolon
The Colon
The Dash
Parentheses
The Apostrophe
The Apostrophe to Show Possession
The Apostrophe to Indicate Missing Letters or Numbers and for Some Plurals
ESL Note: Its and It’s
Quotation Marks
The Ellipsis Mark
Brackets
Italics and Underlining

Chapter 27 Capitalization, Spelling, Abbreviations, and Numbers

Capitalization
ESL Note: Capitalization
Spelling
ESL Note: Spelling
The Hyphen
Abbreviations and Numbers

Appendix: The Parts of Speech

Revising and Editing Reference Guide
Revising and Editing Symbols

About the Author

Barbara Fine Clouse

Barbara Clouse has taught all levels of college composition, first at Youngstown State University in northeastern Ohio and then at Slippery Rock University in western Pennsylvania. She has also written a number of composition texts. In addition to A Troubleshooting Guide for Writers, her books include The Student Writer: Editor and Critic, Jumpstart: A Workbook for Writers, Patterns for a Purpose: A Rhetorical Reader, and Transitions: From Reading to Writing, all written for McGraw-Hill. She has also developed Cornerstones: Readings for Writers, which is a short prose reader that is part of Primis, McGraw-Hill's custom publishing database. Barbara has also written Progressions with Readings and Conventions and Expectations: A Brief Handbook and Guide to Writing for Longman Publishers. A frequent presenter at national and regional conferences, Barbara often conducts workshops for writing teachers. McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide.