Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology
Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology, 3rd Edition examines the latest research in the context of a retrograde political climate on such topics as women’s leadership, backlash against competent women, sexual harassment, transgender identity, reproductive justice, and feminist activism. Students are introduced to the concepts of feminism, multiculturalism, diversity and intersexuality.
Table of Contents

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PART 1 Introduction


Chapter 1 Paving the Way 2



How Did the Psychology of Women Get Started?

Psychology and the Women’s Movement

Voices from the Margins: A History

What Is Feminism?

Feminism Has Many Meanings

Is There a Simple Definition?

Methods and Values in Psychological Research

Psychology’s Methods

Toward Gender-Fair Research

Feminist Values in Research


About This Book

A Personal Reflection

Exploring Further


PART 2 Gender in Social Context


Chapter 2 Gender, Status, and Power 24


What Is Gender?

Gender Shapes Societies and Cultures

Gender and Power

Justifying Gender Inequality

Gender Shapes Social Interactions

Constructing Gender through Female Bodies

Gender as a Presentation of Self

“Doing Gender”

Constructing Gender in Interaction

Gender Shapes Individuals

Identity, Power, and Gender Differences

Sexist Attitudes

Linking the Levels of Gender: A Summary

Making a Difference

Transforming Ourselves

Transforming Interpersonal Relations

Transforming the Structures of Inequality

Exploring Further



Chapter 3 Images of Women


Words Can Never Hurt Me?

Language about Women and Men

Worth a Thousand Words: Media Images

Representing Women and Men


Sexual Objectification

Invisible Women

Stereotypes about Women and Men

The Content of Gender Stereotypes

Sexuality Stereotypes

The Intersectionality of Gender and Ethnic Stereotypes

Are Stereotypes Accurate?

Stereotypes Are Hard to Change

The Impact of Stereotypes

Stereotypes, the Self, and Stereotype Threat

Stereotypes, Status, and Power

Stereotypes and Sexist Behavior

How Not to Stereotype

Making a Difference

Transforming Language

Challenging Objectification

Exploring Further



Chapter 4 The Meanings of Difference


The Politics of Difference and Similarity

Defining Difference and Similarity

Measuring Differences

Interpreting Results: Values and Ideology in Research

Gendering Cognition: “Girls Can’t Do Math”

What Factors Influence Mathematics Performance?

Social Implications of Gendered Cognition

Gendering Emotion: “Boys Don’t Cry”

Emotion Stereotypes

Culture, Ethnicity, and Emotionality

Emotionality and Social Interaction

Social Implications of Gendered Emotionality

Making a Difference

The Individual Level: Thinking Critically about Differences and Similarities

The Interactional Level: Difference and Discrimination

The Sociocultural Level: Creating Opportunities for Equality

Can Similarities and Differences Be Reconciled?

Exploring Further



PART 3 Gender and Development


Chapter 5 Sex, Gender, and Bodies


How Does Sex Develop?

Sexual Differentiation during Fetal Development

Variations in Fetal Development: Intersexuality

Sex, Gender Identity, and Gender Typing

Intersexuality and Identity

Transgender Identity

Sex and Sexual Orientation

Is There a Gay Gene?

Hormones and Sexual Orientation

Sex as a Social Construction

Constructing Two Sexes

Rethinking Gender Dysphoria

Beyond the Binary

More Than Two Sexes


Making a Difference

Transforming Society: Equality for Gender Minorities

Transforming Ourselves: Accepting Biological and Social Diversity

Exploring Further



Chapter 6 Gendered Identities: Childhood and Adolescence


Theories of Gender Development

Social Learning Theory

Cognitive Theories

Gender in the Child’s Daily Life

Parental Influences

Peer Influences

Gendered Environments

Media Influences

Intersectionality and Gender Typing

Children and Poverty 180

Leaving Childhood Behind: Puberty and Adolescence

Changing Bodies

Gender Intensification

Vulnerabilities of Adolescence

Who is this New Self?

Peer Culture and Harassment 188

Making a Difference

Transforming Social Interactions: Enlarging the Options for Girls

Transforming Ourselves: Resisting Gender Typing

Exploring Further



PART 4 Gendered Life Paths


Chapter 7 Sex, Love, and Romance


How Is Sexuality Shaped by Culture?

What Are Sexual Scripts?

Contemporary and Safer Sex

Sexual Scripts Differ across Ethnic Groups and Cultures

Adolescent Sexuality

How Does Sexuality Emerge in the Teen Years?

What Factors Influence the Decision to Have Sex?

Teens and Safer Sex

Experiencing Sexuality

First Intercourse: Less Than Bliss?

Women's Experiences of Orgasm

Evils of Masturbation or Joys of Self-Pleasure?

Lesbian and Bisexual Women

Defining Sexual Orientation

Developing a Lesbian or Bisexual Identity

Intersections of Ethnic and Sexual Identity

Hookups, Dating, and Romantic Love

The Subtle Scripts of Sexual Initiative and Pleasure

Sexual Scripts and Sexual Dysfunction

Social Contexts of Sexual Expression

Cultural Variations in the United States

Attractiveness and Sexual Desirability

Disability and Sexuality

Is Sex Talk Sexist?

Studs and Sluts: Is There Still a Double Standard?

Silencing Girls’ Sexuality

Controlling Women’s Sexuality

Making a Difference

Safer Sex

Better Sex

Exploring Further



Chapter 8 Commitments: Women and Close Relationships



Who Marries and When?

Who Marries Whom?

Varieties of Marriage

Power in Marriage

Happily Ever After?

Marital Satisfaction and Psychological Adjustment

Lesbian Couples

Lesbian and Heterosexual Couples Compared

Characteristics of Lesbian Marriages and Relationships

Power and Satisfaction in Lesbian Relationships 248

Cohabiting Couples

Who Cohabits and Why?

Does Living Together Affect Later Marriage?

Ending the Commitment: Separation and Divorce

What Are the Causes and Consequences of Divorce?


Making a Difference

Marriage Equality for Lesbian and Gay Couples

True Partnership: Equality in Heterosexual Marriage

Exploring Further



Chapter 9 Mothering


Images of Mothers and Motherhood

The Decision to Have a Child

Why Do Women Choose to Have Children?

Childless by Choice or Circumstance?

Restricting Women’s Choices

Technology and Choice

The Transition to Motherhood

How Does Motherhood Change Work and Marital Roles?

Psychological Effects of Bodily Changes during Pregnancy

How Do Others React to Pregnant Women?

Motherhood and Women’s Identity

The Event of Childbirth

Is Childbirth a Medical Crisis?

Family-Centered Childbirth

Depression Following Childbirth: Why?

Experiences of Mothering

Teen Mothers

Single Mothers

Black Mothers and the Matriarchal Myth

GBT Mothers

Making a Difference

Transforming Social Policy: Redefining Family Values

Transforming Social Meanings: Redefining Parenthood

Exploring Further



Chapter 10 Work and Achievement


If She Isn’t Paid, Is It Still Work?

Housework as Real Work

Relational Work: Keeping Everybody


Status Work: The Two-Person Career

What Are the Costs and Benefits of Invisible Work?

Working Hard for a Living: Women in the Paid Workforce

Occupational Segregation

Women’s Work as Only Natural

The Wage Gap

Doing Gender in the Workplace

Evaluating Women’s Performance

Discrimination in Hiring and Promotion

Social Reactions to Token Women

The Importance of Mentoring

Leadership: Do Women Do It Differently?

Sexual Harassment from Nine to Five

Defining Sexual Harassment

The Prevalence of Harassment

What Are the Causes of Harassment?

The Consequences of Harassment

Women’s Career Development

Expectancies, Values, and Career Paths

High-Achieving Women

Putting It All Together: Work and Family

What Are the Costs of the Balancing Act?

What Are the Benefits of the Balancing Act?

Making A Difference: Women, Work, and Social Policy

Exploring Further



Chapter 11 The Second Half: Midlife and Aging


Not Just a Number: The Social Meanings of Age

Is There a Double Standard of Aging?


Cross-Cultural Differences

Self-Identity and Social Identity

Images of Older Women


Grannies and Witches: Images and Stereotypes of Older Women

The Effects of Age Stereotypes

In an Aging Woman’s Body

Physical Health in Middle and Later Life

Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy

The Medicalization of Menopause

Constructing the Object of Desire

Exercise and Fitness

Sexuality in Middle and Later Life

Relationships: Continuity and Change

Friends and Family

Becoming a Grandmother

Caregiving: Its Costs and Rewards

Loss of a Life Partner

Work and Achievement

Women in Their Prime


Poverty in Later Life

Making a Difference

Transforming Society: Elder Activism

Transforming Social Interaction: Taking Charge of the Second Half

Transforming Ourselves: Resisting Ageism

Exploring Further



PART 5 Gender and Well-Being


Chapter 12 Violence against Women


Violence against Girls and Women: A Global Perspective

The Gender System and Violence

Rape-Prone Societies

'Honor'-based Violence

Sex Trafficking

Violence and the Media

Language about Violence

Gender Violence as Entertainment

Violence and Social Media


Violence against Children

Child Sexual Abuse 382

How Can Abuse of Children Be Ended?

Violence in Intimate Relationships

Dating Violence


Violence in Long-Term Relationships

How Can Relationship Violence Be Ended?

Violence in Later Life

Elder Abuse

Widow Abuse

How Can Elder Abuse Be Ended?

Making a Difference

A Multifaceted Approach to Interventions

Women’s Rights Are Human Rights

Exploring Further



Chapter 13 Psychological Disorders, Therapy, and Women’s Well-Being


Sexist Bias in Defining Disorders

The Social Construction of Abnormality

Women’s Behavior as Abnormal

Blaming Women for Distress and Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)

Gender-Linked Psychological Disorders

Why Are There Gender Related Differences in the Rates of Some Disorders?

Which Disorders Are Diagnosed More Frequently in Women?

Sexist Bias in the Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Institutionalizing Women

Medicating Women

Traditional Psychotherapy

Feminist Therapy

Conducting Feminist Therapy

Intersectionality and Feminist Therapy

Evaluating Feminist Therapy

Making a Difference

Transforming Ourselves: Finding (or Becoming) a Feminist Therapist

Transforming Social Relations: Challenging the “Crazy Woman” Stereotype

Transforming Society: Promoting Women’s Psychological Well-Being

Exploring Further



Chapter 14 Making a Difference: Toward a Better Future for Women


Contemporary Feminism

Imagery and Attitudes

Negative Images and Stereotypes of Feminists

Attitudes toward Feminism

Feminist Psychology and Social Change

The Changing Face of Psychology

Imagine a World . . .

What Can One Student Do?





Name Index

Subject Index