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The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View, Third Edition


By Laura King



Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

Defining Psychology

Critical Controversy: Are Young Americans in the Middle of a Narcissism Epidemic?

Psychology in Historical Perspective

Psychological Inquiry: Explore Evolution from Giraffes to Human Beings

Contemporary Approaches to Psychology

What Psychologists Do

Psychological Inquiry: Questions That Psychology Specialists Ask

Intersection: Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural Psychology: How Does Culture Influence the Meaning of Success?

The Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness



Chapter 2: Psychology's Scientific Method

Psychology's Scientific Method

Types of Psychological Research

Psychological Inquiry: Miserable but Helpful?

Intersection: Personality and Social Psychology: Does Socialability Lead to Happiness or Is It the Other Way Around?

Research Samples and Settings

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Psychological Inquiry: Experimentation in Natural Setting

Conducting Ethical Research

Critical Controversy: Is it Ethical to Use Deception in Research?

Thinking Critically About Psychological Research

The Scientific Method and Health and Wellness



Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior

The Nervous System

Neurons

Critical Controversy: Do Mirror Neurons Hold the Key to Social Understanding?

Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

Psychological Inquiry: The Brain in Different Species Intersection: Neuroscience and Emotion: How Does the Brain Recognize What Is Funny?

The Endocrine System

Brain Damage, Plasticity, and Repair

Genetics and Behavior

Psychological Inquiry: The Jim Twins

Psychology's Biological Foundations and Health and Wellness



Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

How We Sense and Perceive the World

Psychological Inquiry: Old Woman or Young Woman?

Critical Controversy: Can We Feel the Future?

Psychological Inquiry: Subliminal Perception: Working Up a Thirst

The Visual System

The Auditory System

Other Senses

Intersection: Emotion and Sensation: What Do Feelings Smell Like?

Sensation, Perception, and Health and Wellness



Chapter 5: States of Consciousness

The Nature of Consciousness

Critical Controversy: Does Conscious Reflection Matter to Matters of Conscience?

Sleep and Dreams

Psychological Inquiry: Taking a Ride on the Sleep Cycles

Psychoactive Drugs

Intersection: Consciousness and Neuroscience: Can We Tell What the Brain is Dreaming About?

Psychological Inquiry: Drug Use by U.S. Teenagers

Hypnosis

Consciousness and Health and Wellness: Meditation



Chapter 6: Learning

Types of Learning

Classical Conditioning

Intersection: Learning and Clinical Psychology: Can Classical Conditioning Help Us Understand Drug Abuse?

Psychological Inquiry: From Acquisition to Extinction (to Spontaneous Recovery)

Operant Conditioning

Psychological Inquiry: Schedules of Reinforcement and Different Patterns of Responding

Observational Learning

Cognitive Factors in Learning

Biological, Cultural, and Psychological Factors in Learning

Critical Controversy: Do Learning Styles Matter to Learning?

Learning and Health and Wellness



Chapter 7: Memory

The Nature of Memory

Memory Encoding

Memory Storage

Psychological Inquiry: The Inner Workings of Working Memory

Intersection: Cognitive and Cultural Psychology: How Does Culture Influence Episodic Memory?

Memory Retrieval

Psychological Inquiry: The Serial Position Effect: Lost in Midstream

Critical Controversy: Can Adults Tell If Children's Memories are Accurate

Forgetting

Study Tips from the Science of Memory

Memory and Health and Wellness



Chapter 8: Thinking, Intelligence, and Language

The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology

Thinking

Psychological Inquiry: Thinking Outside the Box

Intersection: Cognitive Psychology and Personality: Do Sophisticated Thinkers Avoid the Bias Blind Spot? Critical Controversy: Is There a Link Between Creative Genius and Psychopathology

Intelligence

Psychological Inquiry: The Normal Curve

Language

Thinking, Problem Solving, and Health and Wellness



Alternative Chapter: Thinking and Language

The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology

Thinking

Psychological Inquiry: Thinking Outside the Box

Two Systems of Information Processing

Critical Controversy: Should we be taking drugs to enhance our thinking?

Biases and Heuristics

Language

Intersection: Language, Culture, and Cognition: How Does Language Shape Answers to the Question “Where”?

Thinking, Language, and Health and Wellness



Alternative Chapter: Intelligence

The History and Definition of Intelligence

Measuring Intelligence

Psychological Inquiry: The Normal Curve

Sources of Bias in Intelligence Testing

Nature, Nurture, and Intelligence

Extremes of Intelligence

Intersection: Educational Psychology and Social Psychology: Do teachers have stereotypes about gifted children?

Multiple Intelligences, Creativity, and Emotional Intelligence

Intelligence and Health and Wellness



Chapter 9: Human Development

Exploring Human Development

Child Development

Psychological Inquiry: Thinking Critically About Object Permanence

Intersection: Developmental and Social Psychology: Is Attachment an Enduring Aspect of Life?

Psychological Inquiry: Looking at Identity Exploration

Adolescence

Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging

Critical Controversy: Is Parenthood Associated with Happiness

Human Development and Health and Wellness



Alternative Chapter: Human Development

(topical approach)

Exploring Human Development

Physical Development

Cognitive Development

Psychological Inquiry: Thinking Critically About Object Permanence

Socioemotional Development

Intersection: Developmental and Social Psychology: Is Attachment of an Enduring Aspect of Life?

Psychological Inquiry: Looking at Identity Exploration

Moral Development

Human Development and Health and Wellness



Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion

Theories of Motivation

Hunger, Obesity, and Eating Disorders

Psychological Inquiry: Obeying the (Yerkes-Dodson) Law

Approaches to Motivation in Everyday Life Critical Controversy: Do Extrinsic Rewards Undermine Intrinsic Motivation? Emotion

Intersection: Emotion and Health Psychology: Can a Smile Protect Against Stress?

Psychological Inquiry: The Full Circle of Emotions

Motivation, Emotion, and Health and Wellness: The Pursuit of Happiness



Chapter 11: Gender, Sex, and Sexuality

Defining Sex and Gender

Theories of Gender Development

Intersection; Gender and Neuroscience: Are There His and Hers Brains (and Should We Even Ask That Question?

The Psychology of Gender Differences

Critical Controversy: Does Autism Spectrum Disorder Represent an Extreme Male Brain?

Psychological Inquiry: Sex and Casual Sex

Sexual Orientation

Sexual Behaviors and Practices

Psychological Inquiry: Sex in America

Sexual Variations and Disorders

Sexuality and Health and Wellness



Chapter 12: Personality

Psychodynamic Perspectives

Critical Controversy: Do Defense Mechanisms Underlie Homophobia?

Humanistic Perspectives

Trait Perspectives

Psychological Inquiry:

Intersection: Personality and Health Psychology: Are Traits Linked to Obesity?

Personological and Life Story Perspectives

Social Cognitive Perspectives

Biological Perspectives

Personality Assessment

Personality and Health and Wellness

Psychological Inquiry: A Can-Do Attitude Means You Can Quit Smoking

Chapter 13: Social Psychology

Social Cognition

Social Behavior

Social Influence

Intersection: Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural Psychology: Why Are Some Nations More Conforming Than Others?

Psychological Inquiry: Obedience Then and Now

Intergroup Relations

Critical Controversy: Is Intelligence Related to Prejudice and Political Beliefs?

Psychological Inquiry: Improving Group Relations Through Cooperative Activities

Close Relationships

Social Psychology and Health and Wellness



Chapter 14: Industrial and Organization Psychology

Origins of Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Industrial Psychology

Psychological Inquiry: The Fastest-Growing Jobs in the United States

Critical Controversy: Does Self-Efficacy Always Lead to Better Performance?

Organizational Psychology

Organizational Culture

Intersection: I-O Psychology and Personality Psychology: Are Transformational Leaders in the Eye of the Beholder?

I-O Psychology and Health and Wellness

Psychological Inquiry: You Need a Vacation!

Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders

Defining and Explaining Abnormal Behavior

Critical Controversy: Does Everyone Have ADHD?

Anxiety and Anxiety-Related Disorders

Disorders Involving Emotion and Mood

Psychological Inquiry: Depression Among Women and Men Across Cultures

Dissociative Disorders

Schizophrenia

Psychological Inquiry: The Association of Genes with Schizeophrenia

Personality Disorders

Intersection: Clinical Psychology and Personality Psychology: Are Aspects of Psychopathy Related to Leadership Success?

Suicide

Psychological Disorders and Health and Wellness



Chapter 16: Therapies

Approaches to Treating Psychological Disorders

Psychotherapy

Psychological Inquiry: Does Therapy Work?

Psychological Inquiry: Classical Conditioning: The Backbone of Aversive Conditioning

Biological Therapies

Critical Controversy: Do Antidepressants Increase Suicide Risk in Children?

Sociocultural Approaches and Issues in Treatment

Clinical and Cultural Psychology: How Does Culture Influence Responses to Treatment?

Therapies and Health and Wellness



Chapter 17: Health Psychology

Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

Making Positive Life Changes

Resources for Effective Life Change

Intersection: Health Psychology and Cross-Cultural Psychology: How Does Culture Influence the Meaning of Social Support?

Psychological Inquiry: Praying for Good Health

Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

Critical Controversy: How Powerful Is the Power of Positive Thinking?

Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as If Your Life Depends upon It

Psychological Inquiry: Physical Activity: A Matter of Life and Death

Psychology and Your Good Life