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Public Speaking Matters teaches today’s diverse student population that adapting to the context of the speech, the cultural backgrounds of their listeners, ethical challenges, and available technology is crucial to public speaking success in the classroom, the community, and the workplace. Students learn the essential skills of speech crafting, speech delivery, and media proficiency required to help them become successful and confident speakers. 

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Contents

PART 1 The Practice of Public Speaking

1              Adapt for Speaking Success 000

                Consider the Benefits of Public Speaking 000

  •              Note the educational benefits 000
  • Note the professional benefits 000
  • Note the personal benefits 000

                Understand Public Speaking as a Type of Communication 000

  • Know the types of communication 000
  • Know the components of communication 000

                Trace the History of Public Speaking 000

                Acknowledge the Fear of Public Speaking 000

                Face Your Fears Visualizing Communication Success 000

                Appreciate the Importance of Ethical Speaking 000

                Adapt to Ethics “I’m Offended!” Deciding Where to Draw the Line with Offensive Language 000

                Prepare to Succeed Use This Text to Build Your Public Speaking Ability 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

2              Manage Speech Anxiety 000

                Understand Why Public Speaking Can Be Frightening 000

  • Speaking anxiety makes your mind go blank 000
  • Speaking anxiety makes you want to flee 000

                Recognize Speech Anxiety as a Form of Stress 000

                Adapt to Ethics Be Kind: Maintaining an Environment of Respect 000

  • Speaking anxiety affects the mind 000
  • Speaking anxiety affects the body 000
  • Speaking anxiety affects behavior 000

                Consider How to Use Stress to Your Advantage 000

  • Accept speaking anxiety as normal 000
  • Focus your nervous energy 000
  • Visualize a successful performance 000
  • Desensitize yourself 000

                Adapt to Technology Going Virtual: Rehearsing in Virtual Reality 000

  • Stay positive 000

                Prepare to Succeed Manage Speech Anxiety Effectively 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

3              Practice and Promote Effective Listening 000

                Understand the Importance of Listening 000

  • Appreciate how often you listen 000
  • Distinguish hearing from listening 000
  • Acknowledge the difference between active and passive listening 000
  • Remember the many benefits of effective listening 000

                Describe the Listening Process 000

  • Hearing 000
  • Understanding 000
  • Remembering 000
  • Interpreting 000
  • Evaluating 000
  • Responding 000

                Identify the Forms of Listening 000

  • Practice appreciative listening 000
  • Practice informational listening 000
  • Practice critical listening 000
  • Practice empathic listening 000

                Adapt to Context Shifting Your Listening Style 000

                Avoid Barriers to Effective Listening 000

  • Avoid pseudolistening 000
  • Limit external noise 000
  • Reduce internal noise 000
  • Manage receiver apprehension 000
  • Minimize closed-mindedness 000

                Adapt to Culture “I Don’t Get It!” Making Language Culturally Accessible 000

                Prepare to Succeed Help Your Audience Listen Better 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

4              Speak Ethically 000

                Know What It Means to Speak Ethically 000

  • Prepare your speech ethically 000
  • Present your speech ethically 000

                Earn and Keep Your Listeners’ Trust 000

  • Establish your credibility 000

                Adapt to Culture Building Credibility 000

  • Generate goodwill 000

                Confront Ethical Challenges 000

  • Fabricating evidence 000
  • Deliberately misguiding listeners 000
  • Defaming others 000

                Avoid Plagiarism 000

  • Plagiarism comes in several forms 000

                Adapt to Technology Using Online Materials Responsibly 000

  • Plagiarism is a serious offense 000

                Prepare to Succeed Apply Ethical Principles to Every Skill in This Course 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

PART 2 Getting Started with Your Speech

5              Know and Adapt to Your Audience 000

                Know Who Your Listeners Are 000

  • Recognize listeners’ demographic traits 000

                Adapt to Ethics Using Inclusive Language 000

  • Appreciate listeners’ cultural values 000
  • Determine listeners’ psychological characteristics 000

                Understand Your Listeners’ Situation 000

  • Consider the purpose of the audience’s attendance 000
  • Know the audience size 000
  • Be mindful of listeners’ time 000
  • Identify the audience’s prior knowledge 000
  • Acknowledge listeners’ competing demands 000

                Consider Ways to Gather Audience Information 000

  • Do formal research 000
  • Administer a questionnaire or a poll 000
  • Conduct casual observations 000

                LIVE WORK SPEAK Know Your Audience 000

                Adapt to Your Audience 000

  • Select an appropriate topic 000
  • Get your listeners’ attention 000
  • Choose your language 000
  • Use compelling evidence 000
  • Find common ground 000

                Adapt to Culture Giving Voice to Dissenting Opinions 000

                Prepare to Succeed Apply Audience Analysis to a Successful Speech 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

6              Determine Your Purposes and Select a Topic 000

                Articulate the General Purpose of Your Speech 000

                Adapt to Context Observing the Boundaries of Your Assignment 000

  • Speak to inform 000
  • Speak to persuade 000
  • Speak to entertain 000
  • Speak to introduce 000
  • Speak to mark a special occasion 000

                Brainstorm Potential Topics 000

  • Consider what you care about 000
  • See what’s popular online 000

                Choose a Specific Topic 000

  • Identify topics that are right for you 000
  • Identify topics that are right for your audience 000
  • Identify topics that are right for the occasion 000

                Face Your Fears Not Giving Up on Finding a Good Topic 000

                State Your Specific Purpose 000

                Identify Your Thesis Statement 000

                Prepare to Succeed Find the Best Topic for You 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

PART 3 Supporting Your Speech

7              Locate Supporting Materials 000

                Assess the Forms of Support You Need 000

  • Consider several forms of support 000
  • Match your claim to your evidence 000

                Adapt to Context Choosing the Right Evidence for Your Audience 000

                Locate Supporting Materials Online 000

  • Consult a general search engine 000

                Adapt to Technology Researching Online: What About Wikipedia? 000

  • Use a research search engine 000
  • Conduct a website-specific search 000

                Take Advantage of Library Resources 000

                Make a Personal Observation 000

                Conduct a Survey 000

  • Interview a source 000
  • Distribute a questionnaire 000

                LIVE WORK SPEAK Conduct Supporting Research 000

                Create Effective Research Notes 000

                Prepare to Succeed Find The Right Supporting Materials for Your Needs 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

8              Evaluate Supporting Materials 000

                Distinguish Among Types of Sources 000

  • Distinguish between primary and secondary sources 000
  • Distinguish between scholarly and popular sources 000

                Face Your Fears Facing the Dilemma of “I Can’t Find Any Good Evidence!” 000

                Evaluate the Merits of Supporting Material 000

  • Check the relevance 000
  • Appraise the credibility 000
  • Gauge the objectivity 000
  • Assess the accuracy 000
  • Consider the currency 000
  • Calculate the completeness 000

                Avoid the Confirmation Bias 000

                Adapt to Ethics Dealing with Data That Don’t Quite Fit 000

                LIVE WORK SPEAK Evaluate Supporting Material 000

                Incorporate Supporting Material Effectively 000

  • Refer to evidence in multiple ways 000
  • Quote or paraphrase evidence 000

                Prepare to Succeed Become a Critical Consumer of Research 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

9              Cite Sources in Your Speech 000

                Gather the Details Necessary to Cite Your Sources 000

                Deliver Verbal Footnotes 000

                Adapt to Ethics Using Material Without Citing Sources Is Stealing 000

                Use an Appropriate Style Manual to Create a Bibliography 000

                Adapt to Technology Using Citation Management Software 000

                Establish the Credibility of Your Sources 000

  • Note your sources’ education 000
  • Describe your sources’ experience 000
  • Point out your sources’ affiliations 000
  • Explain your sources’ professional reputations 000

                Prepare to Succeed Give Credit Where Credit Is Due 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

PART 4 Organizing and Developing Your Speech

10           Outline Your Speech 000

                Understand the Benefits of Outlining 000

                Identify the Components of an Outline 000

                Follow the Guidelines for Creating an Effective Preparation Outline 000

  • Write in complete sentences 000

                Adapt to Culture “Please Understand Me!” Being Sensitive to Language as You Outline 000

  • Address one idea at a time 000
  • Follow the rule of subordination 000
  • Observe the rule of division 000
  • Cite sources in your outline 000
  • Put everything in a proper outline format 000

                Adapt to Technology Applying the Outlining Function in Microsoft Word 000

                Draft a Preparation Outline 000

Create a Speaking Outline 000

                Prepare to Succeed Craft a User-Friendly Outline 000

                Exercises: Apply It Now 000

11           Organize the Body of Your Speech 000

                Articulate Your Main Points 000

  • Keep your main points related 000
  • Make your main points distinct 000
  • Ensure that your main points are equally important 000

                Adapt to Context What's Important Here? Determining the Importance of Your Points 000

                Support Your Main Points with Subpoints 000

                Incorporate Effective Transitions 000

  • Provide previews and summaries 000
  • Incorporate signposts 000
  • Include nonverbal transitions 000

                Understand the Options for Organizing the Body of Your Speech 000

  • Arrange points by topic 000
  • Arrange points by time 000
  • Arrange points by space 000
  • Arrange points by cause and effect 000
  • Arrange points by problem and solution 000

                Face Your Fears Don't Get Stressed: Keeping Perspective When Organizing Your Speech 000

                Prepare to Succeed Select the Right Organizational Strategy 000

                Exercises: Apply It Now 000

12           Introduce and Conclude Your Speech 000

                Capture Your Listeners’ Attention 000

                Adapt to Ethics Going Too Far for Attention 000

                Build Your Credibility 000

                Preview Your Main Points 000

                LIVE WORK SPEAK Craft a Powerful Introduction 000

                Signal the End of Your Speech 000

                Summarize Your Central Message 000

                Create a Memorable Moment 000

                Adapt to Technology Sights and Sounds: Using Technology to Create Memorable Moments 000

                Prepare to Succeed Make Your Introduction and Conclusion Work Together 000

                Exercises: Apply It Now 000

13           Use Language Expertly 000

                Know Why Your Words Matter 000

  • Connect words to meaning 000
  • Connect words to culture 000

                Adapt to Context Talk This Way: Speaking Like Your Listeners 000

  • Connect words to ethics 000
  • Connect words to power 000

                Create Clear and Credible Language 000

  • Choose speech-ready words 000
  • Select concrete language 000
  • Use the active voice 000
  • Make your message understandable 000
  • Aim for correct grammar and word usage 000

                Speak Ethically and Civilly 000

  • Speak respectfully about others 000

                Adapt to Culture Speaking Sensitively About People with Disabilities 000

  • Beware of euphemistic language 000

                Connect with Your Listeners 000

  • Adapt your speaking style 000
  • Incorporate personal pronouns 000
  • Make your speech distinctive 000
  • Add rhythm to your language 000

                Prepare to Succeed Make Your Speech Personal 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

PART 5 Forms of Speeches

14           Speak to Inform 000

                Understand What It Means to Inform 000

  • Gain listener interest 000
  • Increase audience understanding 000
  • Teach rather than influence 000

                Select a Type of Informative Speech 000

                Adapt to Technology Mining Online Resources for Informative Speech Topics 000

                Choose a Method of Informing 000

  • Speak to define 000
  • Speak to describe 000
  • Speak to explain 000
  • Speak to demonstrate 000

                LIVE WORK SPEAK Choose a Method of Informing 000

                Fit Your Method of Informing into an Organizational Pattern 000

  • Choose the best organizational pattern

                Rehearse Your Delivery 000

                Face Your Fears  Chill Out: Slowing Your Speaking Rate 000

                Speak Ethically 000

Bring It All Together: An Informative Speech 000

  • Strengths 000
  • Opportunities for improvement 000

                Prepare to Succeed Maintain a Focus on Informing 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

15           Speak to Persuade 000

                Understand What It Means to Persuade 000

  • Influence people's beliefs 000
  • Sway people’s opinions 000
  • Affect people’s actions 000

                Select a Type of Persuasive Speech 000

  • Persuade beliefs with propositions of fact 000
  • Persuade opinions with propositions of value 000

                Adapt to Context What's Your Position? Talking Values with Different Audiences 000

  • Persuade actions with propositions of policy 000
  • Use more than one type of proposition if necessary 000

                Choose a Method of Persuading 000

  • Appeal to character 000
  • Appeal to emotion 000
  • Appeal to reason 000
  • Appeal to human needs 000
  • Appeal to relevance 000
  • Appeal to personal gain 000
  • Appeal to harmony 000

                Use an Effective Organizational Pattern 000

  • Use a refutational approach 000
  • Try the comparative advantage method 000
  • Consider Monroe’s motivated sequence 000

                Rehearse Your Delivery 000

Practice Ethical Persuasive Speaking 000

                Adapt to Ethics Coming Along on a Guilt Trip 000

                Bring It All Together: A Persuasive Speech 000

     Strengths 000

     Opportunities for improvement 000

                Prepare to Succeed Be Persuasive, Not Manipulative 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

16           Practice Persuasiveness 000

                Maximize Your Credibility 000

  • Showcase your competence 000
  • Exhibit your trustworthiness 000
  • Demonstrate your dynamism 000
  • Highlight your similarity 000
  • Enhance your appearance 000

                Identify the Parts of an Argument 000

  • Recognize the claim 000
  • Find the evidence 000
  • Spot the warrant 000

                Consider Various Types of Arguments 000

  • Argue by deduction 000
  • Argue by induction 000

                Adapt to Ethics Cherry-Picking Evidence for an Inductive Argument 000

  • Argue by analogy 00
  • Argue by cause 000
  • Argue by authority 000

                Avoid Logical Fallacies 000

                Adapt to Your Audience 000

Adapt to Culture Considering Cultural Influences in Persuasion 000

                Prepare to Succeed Choose the Right Argument for Your Situation 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

17           Speak in Small Groups 000

                Recognize Small Group Communication 000

  • Distinguish small groups by their size 000
  • Recognize that members of small groups are interdependent 000
  • Note the many functions of small groups 000
  • Understand that people are socialized into small groups in stages 000
  • Observe that small groups often interact online 000

                Adapt to Technology Logging On: Communicating Successfully in Online Groups 000

                Distinguish Among the Styles of Group Leadership 000

  • Recognize democratic leadership 000
  • Acknowledge autocratic leadership 000
  • Identify laissez-faire leadership 000
  • Appreciate the strengths of each leadership style 000

                Understand the Roles of Group Membership 000

  • Respect task roles 000
  • Value relational roles 000
  • Avoid counterproductive roles 000

                Explain the Processes of Group Decision Making 000

  • Understand unanimous consensus 000
  • Investigate majority rule 000
  • Consider minority rule 000
  • Explore expert opinion 000
  • Appreciate authority rule 284
  • Recognize that decision-making processes vary 284

                Avoid the Pitfalls of Group Communication 000

  • Avoid groupthink 000
  • Beware of social loafing 000

Face Your Fears “I’m Doing All the Work!” Responding to Social Loafing 000

  • Manage group conflict 000
  • Create a Group Presentation 000
  • Select an appropriate format 000
  • Craft your presentation 000
  • Rehearse and deliver your presentation 000

                LIVE WORK SPEAK Plan a Group Oral Report 000

                Prepare to Succeed Appreciate the Advantages of Small Group Communication 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

18           Speak on the Job 000

                Deliver an Impressive Business Presentation 000

  • Determine your general purpose 000
  • Identify your audience 000
  • Choose an organizational pattern 000

                Adapt to Context Choosing an Organizational Pattern for Your Proposal 000

  • Do your homework 000
  • Consider cultural factors 000
  • Create presentation aids 000
  • Adapt to your communication channel 000
  • Rehearse, evaluate, and revise 000

                Lead a Meeting Effectively 000

  • Communicate the purpose 000
  • Create and distribute an agenda 000
  • Begin on time 000
  • Keep the conversation on-topic 000
  • End on time 000

                Communicate Constructively in an Employment Interview 000

  • Prepare to be interviewed successfully 000

                Face Your Fears “You Can’t Ask Me That”: Responding to Illegal Questions in a Job Interview 000

  • Prepare to conduct a successful interview 000
  • Prepare for electronically mediated interviews 000

                Participate in a Performance Review 000

  • Receive a performance review 000
  • Deliver a performance review 000

                Prepare to Succeed Communicate Ethically in the Workplace 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

19           Speak on Special Occasions 000

                Appreciate the Functions of a Special Occasion Speech 000

  • Some speeches celebrate 000
  • Some speeches inspire 000
  • Some speeches commemorate 000
  • Some speeches entertain 000

                Understand the Types of Special Occasion Speeches 000

                Adapt to Technology Finding Special Occasion Speeches Online 000

                Articulate Your Priorities for a Special Occasion Speech 000

  • Determine the function and type of speech 000
  • Know your audience 000
  • Understand the tone of the event 000
  • Outline your presentation 000
  • Rehearse and revise your speech 000

                LIVE WORK SPEAK Prepare a Toast 000

                Incorporate Humor Effectively 000

  • Learn to “read” your audience 000
  • Know the various forms of humor 000
  • Practice your delivery 000
  • Be ethical 000

                Adapt to Culture Thinking Through Your Jokes: Accommodating Cultural Preferences in Humor 000

                Bring It All Together: An Introduction Speech 000

  • Strengths 000
  • Opportunities for improvement 000

                Prepare to Succeed Adapt to the Moment 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

PART 6 Presenting Your Speech

20           Choose and Rehearse a Method of Delivery 000

                Distinguish Among Methods of Delivery 000

  • Impromptu speaking 000
  • Extemporaneous speaking 000
  • Scripted speaking 000
  • Memorized speaking 000

                Practice Speaking Impromptu 000

  • Don’t panic 000

                Face Your Fears Don’t Let Fear Get You Down: Avoiding Paralysis Through Reframing 000

  • Think in threes 000
  • Draw from what has happened 000
  • Be brief 000

                Rehearse an Extemporaneous Speech 000

  • Avoid sounding underprepared 000
  • Avoid sounding overprepared 000

                LIVE WORK SPEAK Rehearse an Extemporaneous Speech 000

                Practice Speaking from a Manuscript 000

  • Avoid reader’s voice 000
  • Handle the manuscript properly 000
  • Maintain sufficient eye contact 000

                Adapt to Culture Look Me in the Eye: Modifying Eye Contact 000

                Memorize Your Presentation 000

  • Commit your text to memory 000
  • Polish your delivery 000
  • Practice recovering from memory failures 000

                Prepare to Succeed Learn to Think on Your Feet 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

21           Use Your Body and Voice Effectively 000

                Pay Attention to Your Personal Appearance 000

                Monitor Your Facial Expressions and Eye Contact 000

  • Communicate with facial expressions 000

                Adapt to Ethics What Are You Really Feeling? Feigning Emotions for Effect 000

  • Keep an eye on eye contact 000

                Use Movement and Gestures Deliberately 000

  • Move your body 000
  • Generate effective gestures 000

                Speak at an Appropriate Rate, Volume, and Pitch 000

  • Find your rate 000
  • Adapt your volume 000

                Adapt to Technology Making the Microphone Your Ally 000

  • Vary your pitch 000

                Keep Your Voice Clear and Fluent 000

  • Practice pronunciation 00
  • Attend to articulation 000
  • Focus on fluency 000

                Prepare to Succeed Look and Sound Confident, Even When You’re Nervous 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

22           Use Presentation Aids Effectively 000

                Understand the Benefits of Presentation Aids 000

  • Presentation aids help you capture attention 000
  • Presentation aids improve listeners’ learning 000
  • Presentation aids generate emotion 000
  • Presentation aids assist with audience recall 000
  • Presentation aids facilitate communication across cultures 000
  • Presentation aids help a speaker stay organized 000

                Identify the Types of Presentation Aids 000

                Adapt to Context Decisions, Decisions: Choosing the Right Presentation Aids for the Situation 000

                Create Compelling Audiovisual Aids 000

  • Text slides 000
  • Graphic slides 000
  • Video and audio 000

                Learn to Use Presentation Software 000

  • Begin with a plan 000
  • Choose a template 000
  • Select slide layouts 000
  • Place slides in order and select transitions 000
  • Rehearse your slide show 000
  • Consider using Prezi 000

                Design Presentation Aids for Maximum Impact 000

  • Focus on your message 000
  • Forget the bells and whistles 000
  • Concentrate on the visual presentation 000

                Adapt to Culture Color Your World: Noting Cultural Meanings for Color 000

                Ensure the Success of Your Delivery 000

  • Consider the context 000
  • Plan your timing 000
  • Be ethical and safe 000
  • Practice with your presentation aids 000
  • Have a backup plan 000

                Prepare to Succeed Make Your Presentation Aids Work for You Rather Than against You 000

  • Exercises: Apply It Now 000

                APPENDIX: SAMPLE SPEECHES 000

GLOSSARY 000

INDEX 000