Psychology: Perspectives and Connections

Just because we “think” something doesn’t make it true.  Psychology: Perspectives and Connections is designed to move students beyond what may seem obvious to them and have them reevaluate the thoughts and beliefs they bring to the course.  Feist’s accessible approach to science helps students challenge their assumptions, understand research, and recognize that in Psychology, no one perspective tells the whole story.

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Table of Contents

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Foreword by Paul Ekman


1 Introduction to Psychology

What Is Psychology?

Psychology Defined

Why Should You Study Psychology?

Psychology in the Real World: Why Psychology Is Important to My Life 

Subdisciplines of Psychology 

The Origins of Psychology 

A Brief History of the Practice of Clinical Psychology

A Brief History of Scientific Psychology 

Psychological Perspectives: Explaining Human Behavior






Neuropsychological-Behavioral Genetic 


The Nature-Nurture Debate

The Evolution of Human Behavior

No One Perspective Tells the Whole Story in Psychology

Challenging Assumptions and Not Believing Everything You 

Think—The Art of Critical Thinking 

Connections within and between Chapters 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Psychology

Chapter Review

2 Conducting Research in Psychology

The Nature of Science

Common Sense and Logic

The Limits of Observation

What Is Science? 

The Scientific Method

Research Process

What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience

Research Designs in Psychology 

Principles of Research Design

Descriptive Studies

Correlational Studies

Experimental Studies

Longitudinal Studies

Twin-Adoption Studies


Big Data

Challenging Assumptions in the Objectivity of Experimental Research

Commonly Used Measures of Psychological Research

Self-Report Measures 

Behavioral Measures 

Physiological Measures

Making Sense of Data with Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics 

Psychology in the Real World: Challenge the Assumptions of Advertisers’ Statistics

Research Ethics

Scientific Misconduct

Ethical Treatment of Human Participants 

Ethical Treatment of Animals 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Psychological Research 

Chapter Review 

3 The Biology of Behavior

Genes and Behavior 

Principles of Behavioral Genetics 

The Connection between Genes and Behavior is Complex 

The Relative Effects of Genes and Environment Can Be Teased Apart

The Environment Can Change Gene Expression: Epigenetics

The Nervous System 

Organization of the Nervous System

The Cells of the Nervous System: Glial Cells and Neurons 

Common Neurotransmitters 

Summary of the Steps in Neural Transmission

The Brain 

Evolution of the Human Brain

Overview of Brain Regions 

Psychology in the Real World: Neuroprosthetics: Thought Control of Artificial Limbs

Brain Plasticity and Neurogenesis 

Challenging Assumptions about Neural Growth in the Adult Brain

Early Evidence of Neurogenesis in Adults 

Key Figures in the Discovery of Neural Growth in Adults

Measuring the Brain 


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional MRI (fMRI) 

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) 

Near Infrared Spectrometry (NIRS) 

Research Process 

The Endocrine System

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in the Biology

of Behavior

Chapter Review

4 Sensing and Perceiving Our World 

The Long, Strange Trip from Sensation to Perception 

Basic Sensory Processes 

Principles of Perception 


Sensing Visual Stimuli

Perceiving Visual Stimuli 


The Physics of Sound and the Psychophysics of Hearing 

The Ear 

Psychology in the Real World: Hearing Loss Can Happen in Young People Too 

Hearing in the Brain 

The Bodily Senses 



The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste 

Smell (Olfaction) 



Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Sensation and Perception 

Research Process 

Chapter Review 

5 Human Development 

The Developing Fetus 

Stages of Prenatal Development 

Brain and Sensory Development before Birth 

Nature and Nurture Influences on Fetal Development 

Prenatal Personality Development 

The Developing Infant and Child 

Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood

Early Cognitive Development 

Psychology in the Real World: Musical Training Changes the Brain 

Development of Moral Reasoning 

Early Socioemotional Development 

Research Process 

The Developing Adolescent 

Physical Development in Adolescence 

Cognitive and Brain Development in Adolescence 

Social Development in Adolescence 

Personality Development in Adolescence 

The Developing Adult 

Early Adulthood 

Middle Adulthood 

Late Adulthood 

Death and Dying 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Human Development 

6 Consciousness 

What Is Consciousness? 

Theories of Consciousness 

Two Dimensions of Consciousness: Wakefulness and Awareness 

Minimal Consciousness 

Moderate Consciousness 

Full Consciousness 

Attention: Focusing Consciousness 

Selective Attention 

Psychology in the Real World: The Hazards of Distracted Driving 

Sustained Attention 

Multitasking: The Implications of Shifting Attention 

Training Consciousness: Meditation 

Meditation and Conscious Experience 

Meditation Training and the Brain 

Sleeping and Dreaming 


Research Process 



Altering Consciousness with Drugs 




Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Consciousness 

Chapter Review 

7 Memory

Forming Memories 

Four Steps in Forming Memories 

Aids to Memory Formation 

Impediments to Memory Formation 

Types of Memory 

Three Major Types of Memory 

Memory and the Brain 

Neuroplasticity and Memory 

Psychology in the Real World: Manipulating Memory with Drugs and Drinks 

Brain Regions Most Involved in Memory 

Challenging Assumptions in Brain Stimulation and Memory 

Research Process 

Malleability of Memory 


Selective and Divided Attention 

Eyewitness Testimony 

False Memories 

Recovered Memories 

Suggestibility and Misinformation 

Forgetting and Memory Loss 

Forms of Forgetting 

Memory Loss Caused by Brain Injury and Disease 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Memory 

Chapter Review 

8 Learning

Basic Processes of Learning 


Conditioning Models of Learning 

Classical Conditioning 

Operant Conditioning 

Challenging Assumptions about Conditioning Models of Learning 

Psychology in the Real World: Behavior Modification for the Treatment of Attentional Disorders 

Social Learning Theory 

How Nature and Nurture Work Together in Learning 


Imitation, Mirror Neurons, and Learning 

Research Process 

Synaptic Change during Learning 

Experience, Enrichment, and Brain Growth 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Learning 

9 Language and Thought


The Nature of Language 

The Evolution of Language in Humans 

Language Development in Individuals 

Theories of Language Acquisition 

Can Other Species Learn Human Language? 

Language, Culture, and Thought 

Research Process 

Thinking, Reasoning, and Decision Making 

How Do We Represent Thoughts in Our Minds? 

How Do We Reason about Evidence? 

Psychology in the Real World: Critical Thinking and Detecting Fake News 

How Do We Make Judgments and Decisions? 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Language and Thought 

Chapter Review 

10 Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity


Defining Intelligence 

Theories of Intelligence 

Measuring Intelligence 

Psychology in the Real World: Bringing Multiple Intelligences to School 

Extremes of Intelligence 

The Nature and Nurture of Human Intelligence 

Group Differences in Intelligence Scores 

Non-Western Views of Intelligence 

Problem Solving 

Types of Problems 

Solution Strategies 

Obstacles to Solutions 


What Is Creativity? 

Stages of Creative Problem Solving 

Creativity and the Brain 

Research Process 

Cognitive Processes in Creative Thinking 

The Creative Personality 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity 389

Chapter Review 

11 Motivation and Emotion


Models of Motivation 

Hunger: Survival of the Individual 

Sex: Survival of the Species 

Research Process 

The Needs to Belong (Affiliation) and to Excel 

Motivation in the Workplace 


What Are Emotions? 

Emotion as a Process 

Psychology in the Real World: Botox and Emotion 

Emotion and the Brain 

How Culture Impacts Emotion Expression 

Gender and Emotion 

Emotional Intelligence 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Motivation and Emotion 

Chapter Review 

12 Stress and Health


Stress as Stimulus or Response 

The Physiology of Stress 

Coping: The Management of Stress 

Coping Strategies 

The Positive Psychology of Coping 

Psychology in the Real World: Does Stress Cause Aging? 

How Stress and Coping Affect Health 

The Birth of Psychoneuroimmunology 

Psychological Risk Factors for Heart Disease 

The Gut-Brain Axis: How the Critters in Our Intestines Affect Health, Mood, and Behavior xxx

Research on Health-Relevant Behavior 

Research Process 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Stress and Health 

Chapter Review 

13 Personality: The Uniqueness of the Individual

Defining Personality 

Perspectives on Personality 

Psychoanalytic Theories 

Humanistic-Positive Psychological Theories 

Social-Cognitive Learning Theories 

Trait Theories 

Evolutionary-Biological Theories 

The Origins of Personality 

Genetics and Personality 

Temperament and the Fetal Environment 

Personality and Culture: Universality and Differences 

Challenging Assumptions in Animal Personality 

Research Process 

How Is Personality Measured? 

Behavioral Observation 


Projective Tests 

Personality Questionnaires 

Social Network Measurement of Personality 

Psychology in the Real World: Personality and Career Interest and Job Performance 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Personality 

Chapter Review 

14 Social Behavior

Group Living and Social Influence 


Minority Social Influence 


Social Perception 


Detecting Deception 



Exclusion and Inclusion 

Psychology in the Real World: The Social Psychology of Social Networks 

Prejudice and Discrimination 

Challenging Assumptions in Social Behavior 

Attitudes and Behavior 

The Nature and Nurture of Attitudes 

Attitude Change 

Social Relations 

The Nature and Nurture of Aggression 

Prosocial Behavior 

Liking, Attraction, and Love 

Research Process 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Social Behavior 

Chapter Review 

15 Psychological Disorders

Defining Psychological Disorders 

Neurodevelopmental Disorders 

Types of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 

Causes of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 


Major Symptoms of Schizophrenia 

Origins of Schizophrenia 

Depressive Disorders 

Origins of Depression 

Research Process 

Bipolar Disorder 

Causes of Bipolar Disorder 

Anxiety Disorders 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder 

Panic Disorder 

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder) 


Specific Phobias 

Origins of Anxiety Disorders 

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 

Causes of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 

Dissociative Disorders 

Dissociative Identity Disorder 

Causes of Dissociative Disorders 

Somatic Symptom Disorders 

Personality Disorders 

Odd-Eccentric Personality Disorders 

Dramatic-Emotional Personality Disorders 

Anxious-Fearful Personality Disorders 

Origins of Personality Disorders 

Psychology in the Real World: Can Internet Use Become an Addiction? 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Psychological Disorders 

Chapter Review 

16 Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Biomedical Treatments for Psychological Disorders 

Drug Therapies 


Electric and Magnetic Therapies 

Challenging Assumptions in the Treatment of Severe Depression 

Effectiveness of Biomedical Treatments 

Psychological Treatments for Psychological Disorders 

Psychoanalytic Therapy 

Humanistic/Positive Therapy 

Behavior Therapies 

Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments 

Group Therapy 

Effectiveness of Psychological Treatments 

Research Process 

Technology-Based Treatments for Psychological Disorders 

Effectiveness of Technology-Based Therapy 

Combined Approaches 

Drugs and Psychotherapy 

Integrative Therapy 

Mindfulness Training and Psychotherapy 

Effectiveness of Combined Approaches 

Psychology in the Real World: How to Choose a Therapist 

Emerging Therapies 

Psychedelic Medicine: A New Hope 

Preventing Disorders 

Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in the Treatment of Psychological Disorders 

Chapter Review 

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