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Philosophy: The Power Of Ideas

Philosophy: The Power Of Ideas

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Program Details

Part One: Metaphysics and Epistemology: Existence and Knowledge

Chapter 1 Powerful Ideas 1

Department of Explosives 3

What Is Philosophy? 4

Philosophical Questions 5

 Misconceptions 7

Tool Kit 9

Argument 9

The Socratic Method 10

Thought Experiments 10

 Reductio ad Absurdum 11

Fallacies 11

Divisions of Philosophy 13

The Benefits of Philosophy 15

Key Terms and Concepts 15

Questions for Discussion and Review 16

Links 16

Suggested Further Readings 16

 

Chapter 2 The Pre-Socratics 18

The Milesians 20

Pythagoras 22

Heraclitus and Parmenides 23

Empedocles and Anaxagoras 26

The Atomists 28

Checklist 31

Key Terms and Concepts 31

Questions for Discussion and Review 31

Suggested Further Readings 31

 

Chapter 3 Socrates, Plato 32

Socrates 32

Plato 35

Plato’s Metaphysics: The Theory of Forms 35

Plato’s Theory of Knowledge 38

Plato’s Theory of Love and Becoming 41

SELECTION 3.1 Plato: Apology 43

SELECTION 3.2 Plato: Republic 46

SELECTION 3.3 Plato: Meno 53

Checklist 58

Key Terms and Concepts 58

Questions for Discussion and Review 59

Suggested Further Readings 59

 

Chapter 4 Aristotle 60

What Is It to Be? 61

Actuality and Possibility 63

Essence and Existence 63

Ten Basic Categories 64

The Three Souls 65

Aristotle and the Theory of Forms 65

Aristotle’s Theory of Knowledge 67

Logic 67

SELECTION 4.1 Aristotle: Metaphysics 68

Checklist 69

Key Terms and Concepts 69

Questions for Discussion and Review 69

Suggested Further Readings 69

 

Chapter 5 Philosophers of the Hellenistic and Christian Eras 70

Metaphysics in the Roman Empire 72

Plotinus 72

The Rise of Christianity 72

St. Augustine 74

Augustine and Skepticism 76

Hypatia 79

The Middle Ages and Aquinas 81

SELECTION 5.1 St. Augustine: Confessions 87

SELECTION 5.2 St. Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica 89

Checklist 91

Key Terms and Concepts 91

Questions for Discussion and Review 91

Suggested Further Readings 91

 

Chapter 6 The Rise of Modern Metaphysics and Epistemology 92

Descartes and Dualism 96

Skepticism as the Key to Certainty 97

The “Clear and Distinct” Litmus Test 98

Hobbes and Materialism 102

Perception 102

The Alternative Views of Conway, Spinoza, and Leibniz 103

The Metaphysics of Anne Conway 103

Spinoza 105

Leibniz 107

 

The Idealism of Locke and Berkeley 109

John Locke and Representative Realism 109

George Berkeley and Idealism 110

Material Things as Clusters of Ideas 112

Berkeley and Atheism 113

SELECTION 6.1 René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy 116

SELECTION 6.2 Benedictus de Spinoza: Ethics 118

SELECTION 6.3 George Berkeley: Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 120

Checklist 122

Key Terms and Concepts 122

Questions for Discussion and Review 123

Suggested Further Readings 123

 

Chapter 7 The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 124

David Hume 125

The Quarter Experiment 125

Hume on the Self 127

Hume on Cause and Effect 128

Immanuel Kant 130

The Ordering Principles of the Mind 130

Things-in-Themselves 132

The Nineteenth Century 133

The Main Themes of Hegel 135

Arthur Schopenhauer 136

SELECTION 7.1 David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 138

SELECTION 7.2 Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason 139

SELECTION 7.3 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Philosophy of History 140

SELECTION 7.4 Arthur Schopenhauer: The World as Will and Representation 141

Checklist 143

Key Terms and Concepts 143

Questions for Discussion and Review 144

Suggested Further Readings 144

 

Chapter 8 The Continental Tradition 145

Brief Historical Overview of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 145

Existentialism 147

Psychoanalysis 152

Two Existentialists 153

Albert Camus 156

Jean-Paul Sartre 159

Sartre and Kant on Ethics 162

You Are What You Do 163

Phenomenology 163

Edmund Husserl 165

Martin Heidegger 166

Poetry 168

Eastern Philosophy 169

Emmanuel Levinas 169

An Era of Suspicion 170

Jorgen Habermas 171

Michel Foucault 173

Structuralism versus Deconstruction 174

Jacques Derrida 175

Gilles Deleuze 177

Alain Badiou 179

Checklist 188

Key Terms and Concepts 188

Questions for Discussion and Review 189

Suggested Further Readings 189

 

Chapter 9 The Pragmatic and Analytic Traditions 190

Pragmatism 191

Richard Rorty 193

Analytic Philosophy 194

What Analysis Is 194

A Brief Overview of Analytic Philosophy 195

Language and Science 199

Experience, Language, and the World 202

Antirepresentationalism 207

Wittgenstein’s Turnaround 208

Quine, Davidson, and Kripke 211

Willard Van Orman Quine 211

Donald Davidson 213

Saul Kripke 213

Ontology 215

Meta-Ontology 216

Philosophical Questions in Quantum Mechanics 217

Checklist 232

Key Terms and Concepts 232

Questions for Discussion and Review 232

Suggested Further Readings 232

 

Part Two: Moral and Political Philosophy

Chapter 10 Moral Philosophy 234

Skepticism, Relativism, and Subjectivism 235

Egoism 236

Hedonism 237

The Five Main Ethical Frameworks 238

The Early Greeks 239

Plato 239

Aesara, the Lucanian 243

Aristotle 244

Epicureanism and Stoicism 246

Epicureanism 247

The Stoics 247

Christianizing Ethics 250

St. Augustine 250

St. Hildegard of Bingen 252

Heloise and Abelard 254

St. Thomas Aquinas 256

Hobbes and Hume 257

Hobbes 257

Hume 259

Value Judgments Are Based on Emotion, Not Reason 259

Benevolence 260

Can There Be Ethics after Hume? 261

Kant 261

The Supreme Principle of Morality 262

Why You Should Do What You Should Do 263

The Utilitarians 264

Bentham 265

Mill 266

Friedrich Nietzsche 268

SELECTION 10.1 Plato: Gorgias 269

SELECTION 10.2 Aristotle: Ethics 272

SELECTION 10.3 Immanuel Kant: Metaphysics of Morals 277

SELECTION 10.4 John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism 279

Checklist 285

Key Terms and Concepts 285

Questions for Discussion and Review 285

Suggested Further Readings 286

 

Chapter 11 Political Philosophy 287

Plato and Aristotle 288

Plato 288

Aristotle 289

Natural Law Theory and Contractarian Theory 290

Augustine and Aquinas 291

Hobbes 292

Two Other Contractarian Theorists 296

John Locke 296

Locke and the Right to Property 299

Separation of Power 300

Jean-Jacques Rousseau 301

U.S. Constitutional Theory—Applied Philosophy 304

Natural Law and Rights in the Declaration of Independence 304

Natural Law and Rights in the U.S. Constitution 305

The Right to Privacy 306

Classic Liberalism and Marxism 307

Adam Smith 307

Utilitarianism and Natural Rights 307

Harriet Taylor 308

John Stuart Mill 308

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 311

Marxism 312

The Means of Production versus Productive Relations 313

Class Struggle 314

Capitalism and Its Consequences 314

Alienation 316

Capitalism Is Self-Liquidating 317

Marxism and Communism 317

Anarchism 318

SELECTION 11.1 Plato: Republic 322

SELECTION 11.2 Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan 326

SELECTION 11.3 John Stuart Mill: On Liberty 329

Checklist 332

Key Terms and Concepts 332

Questions for Discussion and Review 332

Suggested Further Readings 333

 

Chapter 12 Recent Moral and Political Philosophy 334

  1. E. Moore 334

Normative Ethics and Metaethics 336

Emotivism and Beyond 337

John Rawls, a Contemporary Liberal 340

The Fundamental Requirements of the Just Society 341

The Veil of Ignorance and the Original Position 342

The Two Principles of Social Justice 342

The Rights of Individuals 343

Why Should I Accept Rawls’s Provisions? 343

Robert Nozick’s Libertarianism 345

A Minimal State Is Justified 345

Only the “Night-Watchman” State Does Not Violate Rights 346

The Rights of Individuals 347

Communitarian Responses to Rawls 347

Alasdair MacIntyre and Virtue Ethics 351

Martha Nussbaum 352

Herbert Marcuse, A Recent Marxist 354

The Objectivism of Ayn Rand 357

“Isms” 362

Checklist 370

Key Terms and Concepts 370

Questions for Discussion and Review 371

Suggested Further Readings 371

 

Part Three: Philosophy of Religion: Reason and Faith

Chapter 13 Philosophy and Belief in God 374

Two Christian Greats 375

Anselm 376

The Ontological Argument 376

Gaunilo’s Objection 377

Aquinas 378

The First Way 378

The Second Way 378

The Third Way 379

The Fourth and Fifth Ways 380

Mysticism 382

Seventeenth-Century Perspectives 385

Descartes 385

Descartes’ First Proof 386

Descartes’ Second Proof 386

Descartes’ Third Proof 386

Leibniz 388

Leibniz and the Principle of Sufficient Reason 388

Leibniz and the Problem of Evil 389

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Perspectives 390

Hume 391

Hume and the Argument from Design 391

Hume and the Cosmological Argument 393

A Verbal Dispute? 393

Kant 394

What Is Wrong with the Ontological Proof? 395

What Is Wrong with the Cosmological and Teleological Proofs? 396

Belief in God Rationally Justified 396

Kierkegaard 397

Nietzsche 398

James 399

Perspectives 402

God and Logical Positivism 402

Mary Daly: The Unfolding of God 403

Intelligent Design or Evolution? 406

God, the Fine-Tuner 408

Who Needs Reasons for Believing in God? 409

SELECTION 13.1 St. Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica 410

SELECTION 13.2 Friedrich Nietzsche 412

Checklist 419

Key Terms and Concepts 419

Questions for Discussion and Review 420

Suggested Further Readings 420

 

Part Four: Voices

Chapter 14 Feminist Philosophy 422

The First Wave 423

The Second Wave 424

The Third Wave 428

Feminist Moral Theory 430

Sexism and Language 433

Feminist Epistemology 435

French Feminist Philosophy and Psychoanalytical Theory 436

Luce Irigaray 439

Julia Kristeva 440

Hélène Cixous 442

“Laugh of the Medusa” 445

SELECTION 14.1 Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman 450

Checklist 462

Key Terms and Concepts 462

Questions for Discussion and Review 462

Suggested Further Readings 462

 

Chapter 15 Eastern Influences 463

Hinduism 464

Buddhism 468

Buddha 468

Taoism 472

Lao Tzu 473

Sun Tzu 478

Chuang Tzu 479

Confucianism 482

Confucius 482

Mencius 487

Hsün Tzu 490

Zen Buddhism in China and Japan 491

Hui Neng 491

Buddhism in Japan 494

Murasaki Shikibu 495

Dogen Kigen 498

The Philosophy of the Samurai (c. 1100– 1900) 500

The Influence of Confucius 505

The Influence of Zen Buddhism 506

Philosophy East and West 508

SELECTION 15.1 Confucius: Analects 510

Checklist 515

Key Terms and Concepts 515

Questions for Discussion and Review 516

Suggested Further Readings 516

 

Chapter 16 Postcolonial Thought 517

Historical Background 518

Africa 520

Oral and Traditional Philosophy 521

Person 521

Historiography 522

The Nature of Philosophy 522

The Good Life 523

The Americas 524

African American Thought 527

Social Justice 527

Feminism 528

Afrocentrism 529

Social Activism 530

Latin American Thought 530

Ontology 531

Metaphysics of the Human 531

Gender Issues 532

South Asia 532

Satyagraha 534

Metaphysics 535

Checklist 546

Key Terms and Concepts 546

Questions for Discussion and Review 546

Suggested Further Readings 546

 

Chapter 17 Four Philosophical Problems 547

Free Will 547

Psychological Determinism 548

Neuroscientific Determinism 549

Causal Determinism 551

Consciousness 552

Dualism 553

Behaviorism 554

Identity Theory 555

Functionalism 556

Zombies 558

The Ethics of Generosity: The Problem of The Gift 559

What Is Art? and Related Problems in Aesthetics 566

What Is Art? 567

A Paradox of Fiction 569

The Puzzle of Musical Expression 571

Envoi 572

Checklist 577

Key Terms and Concepts 577

Questions for Discussion and Review 577

Suggested Further Readings 578

Credits C-1

Index/Glossary I-