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The Philosophical Journey: An Interactive Approach, 7e is a text with readings that enhances comprehension of philosophical study by encouraging students to ponder, explore, and actively participate in the learning process. Philosophy becomes a personal journey for students through Lawhead’s unique pedagogy that introduces philosophical concepts through practical application in the form of primary sources, interwoven exercises, and sections that encourage critical thinking and further exploration of core concepts.

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Table of Contents

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Preface iii

CHAPTER 1

Introduction to the Philosophical Journey 3

1.0 OVERVIEW OF THE JOURNEY 4

1.1 SOCRATES AND THE SEARCH FOR WISDOM 15

1.2 PLATO’S ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE 30

1.3 ARGUMENT AND EVIDENCE: HOW DO I DECIDE WHAT TO BELIEVE? 37

1.4 MAKING PHILOSOPHY PERSONAL: Introduction to the Philosophical Journey 46


CHAPTER 2

The Search for Ultimate Reality 53

2.0 OVERVIEW OF METAPHYSICS 54

2.1 OVERVIEW: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM 64

2.2 DUALISM 71

2.3 PHYSICALISM 83

2.4 FUNCTIONALISM AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 98

2.5 OVERVIEW: FREEDOM AND DETERMINISM 116 

2.6 HARD DETERMINISM 127

2.7 LIBERTARIANISM 142

2.8 COMPATIBILISM 155

2.9 MAKING PHILOSOPHY PERSONAL: Metaphysics 161


CHAPTER 3

The Search for Knowledge 171

3.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE 172

3.1 SKEPTICISM 180

3.2 RATIONALISM 193

3.3 EMPIRICISM 209

3.4 KANTIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM 238

3.5 EPISTEMOLOGICAL RELATIVISM 253

3.6 RETHINKING THE WESTERN TRADITION: PRAGMATISM 270

3.7 RETHINKING THE WESTERN TRADITION: FEMINIST EPISTEMOLOGY 283

3.8 APPLYING EPISTEMOLOGY: WHAT IS THE NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE? 295

3.9 MAKING PHILOSOPHY PERSONAL: THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE 304 


CHAPTER 4

The Search for God 315

4.0 OVERVIEW OF PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION 316

4.1 THE COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT FOR GOD 322

4.2 THE DESIGN ARGUMENT FOR GOD 330

4.3 THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT FOR GOD 339

4.4 PRAGMATIC AND SUBJECTIVE JUSTIFICATIONS OF RELIGIOUS BELIEF 344

4.5 THE PROBLEM OF EVIL: ATHEISTIC AND THEISTIC RESPONSES 358

4.6 RETHINKING THE WESTERN TRADITION: ASIAN RELIGIONS 373

4.7 APPLYING PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION: HOW DOES RELIGION RELATE TO SCIENCE? 394

4.8 MAKING PHILOSOPHY PERSONAL: PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION 400


CHAPTER 5

The Search for Ethical Values 409

5.0 OVERVIEW OF ETHICS 410

5.1 ETHICAL RELATIVISM VERSUS OBJECTIVISM 425

5.2 ETHICAL EGOISM 446

5.3 UTILITARIANISM 462

5.4 KANTIAN ETHICS 480

5.5 VIRTUE ETHICS 498

5.6 RETHINKING THE WESTERN TRADITION: FEMINIST ETHICS 517

5.7 ETHICAL THEORIES AND PRACTICAL MORAL PROBLEMS 532

5.8 MAKING PHILOSOPHY PERSONAL: ETHICS 538


CHAPTER 6

The Search for the Just Society 549

6.0 OVERVIEW OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 550

6.1 THE JUSTIFICATION OF GOVERNMENT 555

6.2 THE QUESTION OF JUSTICE 569

6.3 THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE STATE 588

6.4 CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE 611

6.5 MAKING PHILOSOPHY PERSONAL: POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 627 


CHAPTER 7

Philosophy and the Meaning of Life 635

7.0 MAKING PHILOSOPHY PERSONAL: THE MEANING OF LIFE 659


APPENDIX

Reasoning Effectively: What to Do and What Not to Do A-1

Index I-1