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PART I INTRODUCTION TO THE NURSING PROFESSION

CHAPTER 1 Nursing—An Evolving Profession

Overview 4 Historical Review

Theoretical Foundation

Nursing Roles and Education

Legal Perspectives

Ethical Perspective

Cultural Perspective

The Future of Nursing

CHAPTER 2

The Nursing Process

Overview

Assessment

Types of Assessment

Data Collection

Diagnosis

Definition

Diagnostic Process

NANDA’s Nursing Diagnosis Taxonomy

Planning

Prioritizing Diagnoses

Expected Outcomes and Outcome Criteria

Nursing Interventions

Nursing Care Plans

Implementation

Evaluation

Evaluation at the Individual Patient Level

Evaluation at the Organizational Level

Conclusion

PART II FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF NURSING CARE

CHAPTER 3 Communication and Documentation

Overview 34 Communication

Basic Principles

Nursing and the Communication Process

Documentation

Purpose of Documentation

Principles of Documentation

Methods of Documentation

Reporting

Conclusion

CHAPTER 4

Vital Sign Assessment

Overview

Temperature

Thermoregulation

Temperature Variations

Procedural Tips

Pulse

Pulse Characteristics

Procedural Tips

Respirations

Respiratory Characteristics

Procedural Tips

Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure Variations

Procedural Tips

Vital Sign Documentation

Conclusion

CHAPTER 5

Health Assessment

Overview

Nursing Health History

Components of the Health History

Physical Examination

General Techniques

Preparing for the Examination

Performing the Examination

Conclusion

CHAPTER 6

Medication Administration

Overview

Basic Pharmacological Principles

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacodynamics

Legal Guidelines for Medication Administration

Medication Administration Principles

Right Patient

Right Medication

Right Dose

Right Route

Right Time

Right Documentation

Nursing Process and Medication Administration

Assessment

Nursing Diagnosis

Planning

Implementation

Evaluation

Conclusion

CHAPTER 7

Safety

Overview

Infection Control

Infection Cycle

Infection Control Strategies

Asepsis

Health Promotion

Injury Prevention and Security

Injury Prevention: General Guidelines

Injury Prevention in the Healthcare Setting

Conclusion

PART III MEETING BASIC HUMAN NEEDS CHAPTER 8

Skin Integrity

Overview

The Structure and Physiology of the Skin

Factors Influencing Skin Function

Age

Nutrition and Hydration

Hygiene

Environment

Health Deviations

The Nursing Process and Skin Integrity

Assessment

Nursing Diagnosis

Planning and Implementation

Health Promotion

Prevention of Skin Impairment in At-Risk Patients

Interventions for Impaired Skin Integrity

Evaluation

Conclusion

CHAPTER 9 Activity and Mobility

Overview

Physiology of Mobility

Factors Influencing Mobility

Effects of Immobility

The Nursing Process and Mobility

Assessment

Nursing Diagnoses

Planning

Implementation

Health Promotion

Restorative Interventions

Evaluation

Conclusion

CHAPTER 10

Sensory and Cognition

Overview

Physiology of Sensory and Cognitive Function

Sensory Reception

Cognitive Processing of Stimuli

Cognitive Components

Factors Influencing Sensory and Cognitive Function

Age

Environment

Lifestyle and Previous Experiences

Culture, Values, and Beliefs

Health Deviations

Medications

Alteration in Sensory and Cognitive Function

Sensory Alterations

Cognitive Alterations

Nursing Process and Sensory and Cognitive Function

Assessment

Nursing Diagnosis

Planning and Implementation

Interventions for Cognitive Impairment

Conclusion

CHAPTER 11

Sleep and Comfort

Overview

Sleep and Rest

Physiology of Sleep

Factors Influencing Sleep and Rest

Effects of Sleep Disturbances

The Nursing Process and Sleep/Rest Disturbances

Pain and Comfort

Physiology of Pain

Types of Pain

Factors Influencing Comfort and Pain

The Nursing Process and Pain

Conclusion

CHAPTER 12

Oxygenation

Overview

Physiology of Oxygenation

Factors Influencing Oxygenation

Physiological Factors

Age and Developmental Stage

Environmental Factors

Diet

Lifestyle

Health Alterations

Alterations in Oxygenation

The Nursing Process and Oxygenation

Assessment

Nursing Diagnoses

Planning

Implementation

Evaluation

Conclusion

CHAPTER 13

Nutrition

Overview

Physiology of Nutrition

Nutrients

Digestive Process

Factors Influencing Nutrition

Age and Developmental Stage

Lifestyle and Culture

Health Alterations and Therapeutic Interventions

The Nursing Process and Nutrition

Assessment

Nursing Diagnoses

Planning and Implementation

Evaluation

Conclusion

CHAPTER 14

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance

Overview

Physiology of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Regulation

Fluids

Electrolytes

Acid–Base Balance

Factors Influencing Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance

Food and Fluid Intake

Drugs

Health Alterations

Age

Alterations in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance

Fluid Imbalances

Electrolyte and Acid–Base Imbalances

The Nursing Process and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance

Assessment

Nursing Diagnosis

Planning

Nursing Interventions

Evaluation

Conclusion

CHAPTER 15

Urinary Elimination

Overview

Factors Influencing Urinary Elimination

Age and Developmental Stage

Diet and Fluid Intake

Psychosocial Factors

Health Alterations

Medical and Surgical Interventions

Alterations in Urinary Elimination

Urinary Retention 263 Urinary Incontinence

Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Diversions

The Nursing Process and Urinary Elimination

Nursing Interventions

Conclusion

CHAPTER 16

Bowel Elimination

Overview

Factors Influencing Bowel Elimination

Age and Developmental Stage

Diet and Fluid Intake

Activity and Exercise

Psychosocial Factors

Medical and Surgical Interventions

Alterations in Bowel Elimination

Constipation

Impaction

Diarrhea

Fecal Incontinence

Flatulence

Bowel Diversions

The Nursing Process and Bowel Elimination

Assessment

Nursing Diagnosis

Planning

Implementation

Conclusion

CHAPTER 17

Psychosocial Needs

Overview

Self-concept

Components of Self-concept

Influencing Factors

Alterations in Self-concept

Families, Roles, and Relationships

Influencing Factors

Alterations in Roles and Relationships

Human Sexuality

Basic Concepts

Influencing Factors

Alterations in Sexuality

Spirituality

Influencing Factors

Stress, Loss, Grief, and Coping

Stress and Coping

Loss and Grief

The Nursing Process and Meeting Psychosocial Needs

Assessment

Nursing Diagnoses

Planning

Implementation

Conclusion

Final Exam

Index