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Program Details

PART ONE

INTRODUCTION TO THE LIVING ANIMAL

EXERCISE 1

The Microscope 3

Exercise 1A: Compound Light Microscope 3

Exercise 1B: Stereoscopic DissectingMicroscope 8

Exercise 1C: Electron Microscope 9

EXERCISE2

Cell Structure and Division 13

Exercise 2A: The Cell—Unit of ProtoplasmicOrganization 13

Exercise 2B: Cell Division—Mitosis andCytokinesis 16

EXERCISE3

Gametogenesis and Embryology 25

Exercise 3A: Meiosis—Maturation Division ofGerm Cells 25

Exercise 3B: Cleavage Patterns—Spiral and RadialCleavage 36

Exercise 3C: Frog Development 44

EXERCISE4

Tissue Structure and Function 47

Exercise 4: Tissues Combined into Organs 54

PARTTWO

THEDIVERSITY OF ANIMAL LIFE

EXERCISE5

Ecological Relationships of Animals 63

Exercise 5A: A Study ofPopulation Growth, with Application of the Scientific Method 63

Exercise 5B: Ecology ofa Freshwater Habitat 67

EXERCISE6

Introduction to Animal Taxonomy 77

Exercise 6A: PhylogenyReconstruction—How to Make a Cladogram 78

Exercise 6B: Use of aTaxonomic Key for Organism Identification 83

EXERCISE7

Unicellular Eukaryotes 89

Exercise 7A: PhylumAmoebozoa—Amoeba and Others 89

Exercise 7B: PhylaEuglenozoa and Viridiplantae—Euglena, Volvox, and Trypanosoma 97

Exercise 7C: PhylumApicomplexa—Plasmodium and Gregarina 106

Exercise 7D: PhylumCiliophora—Paramecium and Other Ciliates 109

Experimenting inZoology: Effect of Temperature on the Locomotor Activity of Stentor 115

Experimenting inZoology: Genetic Polymorphism in Tetrahymena 117

EXERCISE8

The Sponges 121

Exercise 8: Class Calcispongiae—Sycon 121

EXERCISE9

The Radiate Animals 131

Exercise 9A: Class Hydrozoa— Hydra, Obelia, and Gonionemus132

Exercise 9B: Class Scyphozoa—Aurelia, a “True” Jellyfish138

Exercise 9C: Class Anthozoa— Metridium, a Sea Anemone,and Astrangia, a Stony Coral 140

Experimenting in Zoology: Predator Functional Response: FeedingRate in Hydra 147

EXERCISE10

The Flatworms 149

Exercise 10A: Class Turbellaria— Planarians 150

Exercise 10B: Class Trematoda— Digenetic Flukes 153

Exercise 10C: Class Cestoda— Tapeworms 158

Experimenting in Zoology: Planaria Regeneration Experiment 167

EXERCISE11

Nematodes and Four Small Protostome Phyla 171

Exercise 11A: Phylum Nematoda —Ascaris and Others 172

Exercise 11B: A Brief Look at Some Other Protostomes 179

EXERCISE12

The Molluscs 183

Exercise 12A: Class Bivalvia = Pelecypoda)—Freshwater Clam 184

Exercise 12B: Class Gastropoda—Pulmonate Land Snail 191

Exercise 12C: Class Polyplacophora— Chitons 194

Exercise 12D: Class Cephalopoda—Loligo, theSquid 195

 

EXERCISE 13

The Annelids 201

Exercise 13A: Class Errantia— Clamworm 202

Exercise 13B: Class Sedentaria Earthworm 204

Exercise 13C: Family Hirudinidae— Leech 215

Experimenting in Zoology: Behavior of Medicinal Leeches, Hirudomedicinalis 217

EXERCISE14

The Chelicerate Arthropods 219

Exercise 14: Chelicerate Arthropods—Horseshoe Crab and Garden Spider 220

EXERCISE15

The Crustacean Arthropods 227

Exercise 15A: Subphylum Crustacea— Crayfish,Lobsters, and Other Crustaceans 227

Experimenting in Zoology: The PhototacticBehavior of Daphnia 239

EXERCISE16

The Arthropods 241

Exercise 16A: Myriapods—Centipedes andMillipedes 241

Exercise 16B: Insects—Grasshopper andHoneybee 243

Exercise 16C: Insects—House Cricket 251

Exercise 16D: Metamorphosis of Drosophila254

 Exercise 16E: Collectionand Classification of Insects 255

 

EXERCISE 17

The Echinoderms 265

Exercise 17A: Class Asteroidea—Sea Stars 266

Exercise 17B: Class Ophiuroidea—Brittle Stars 270

Exercise 17C: Class Echinoidea—Sea Urchins 273

Exercise 17D: Class Holothuroidea—Sea Cucumbers 275

Exercise 17E: Class Crinoidea—Feather Stars and Sea Lilies 278

EXERCISE18

Phylum Chordata: A Deuterostome Group 281

Exercise 18A: Subphylum Urochordata— Ciona, an Ascidian283

Exercise 18B: Subphylum Cephalochordata—Amphioxus 285

EXERCISE19

The Fishes—Lampreys, Sharks, and Bony Fishes 291

Exercise 19A: Class Petromyzontida— Lampreys (Ammocoete Larvaand Adult) 291

Exercise 19B: Class Chondrichthyes— Cartilaginous Fishes 296

Exercise 19C: Class Actinopterygii—Bony Fishes 301

Experimenting in Zoology: Agonistic Behavior in Paradise Fish, Macropodusopercularis 307

 Experimenting in Zoology: Analysis of the Multiple Hemoglobin System in Carassiusauratus, Common Goldfish 309

 

EXERCISE 20

The Amphibians: Frogs 313

Exercise 20A: Behavior and Adaptations 314

Exercise 20B: Skeleton 318

Exercise 20C: Skeletal Muscles 320

Exercise 20D: Digestive, Respiratory, and Urogenital Systems 325

Exercise 20E: Circulatory System 328

Exercise 20F: Nervous System 334

EXERCISE21

The Reptiles 337

Exercise 21 Painted Turtle 337

EXERCISE22

The Birds 343

Exercise 22 Pigeon 343

EXERCISE23

The Mammals: Fetal Pig 349

Exercise 23A: Skeleton 350

Exercise 23B: Muscular System 354

Exercise 23C: Digestive System 363

Exercise 23D: Urogenital System 368

Exercise 23E: Circulatory System 372

Exercise 23F: Nervous System 379

Exercise 23G: Respiratory System 384

Appendix A: Instructor’s Resources for Implementing Exercises387

Appendix B: Sources of Living Material and Prepared Microslides420