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Table of Contents

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Program Details

To the Instructors – v

I. General Laboratory Procedures and Laboratory Safety – 1

II. Basic Concepts, Measurement and Properties – 11

a. Experiment 1 Measurement and Density – 11

b. Experiment 2 Preparing Graphs – 25

c. Experiment 3 The Identification of an Unknown Liquid – 37

III. Chemical Separations – 47

a. Experiment 4 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures – 47

b. Experiment 5 Separation Using Chromatographic Techniques – 59

IV. Reactions, Formulas, Equations, Mass Relationships, and Structure – 71

a. Experiment 6 Simple Chemical Reactions – 71

i. Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds – 73 REVIEW A: Chemical Arithmetic – Formulas – 83

b. Experiment 7 Hydrates and the Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate - 95

c. Experiment 8 The reduction of an Oxide of Copper and the Determination of its Simple Formula – 105 REVIEW B: Chemical Arithmetic – Equations – 115

d. Experiment 9 Analysis of a KCIO3-KCI Mixture – 127

e. Experiment 10 Calorimetry – Measuring Heat – 135

f. Experiment 11 The Structure of Covalent Molecules and Polyatomic Ions – 149

ii. Writing Lewis Structures for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions – 150

V. The Chemical Behavior of Elements – 163

a. Experiment 12 An Activity Series of Several Metals – 163 The Six Great Scientists – 167

b. Experiment 13 The Preparation and Properties of Oxygen and the Properties of Oxides – 173

VI. The Gas Laws – 183

a. Experiment 14 Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law – 197

b. Experiment 15 The Combined Gas Law and Dalton’s Law – 197

i. The Men Behind the Gas Laws – 202

VII. Acid-Base Chemistry – 207 REVIEW C: Chemical Arithmetic – Molarity – 207

a. Experiment 16 Acid-Base Titrations – 217

b. Experiment 17 Acids, Bases, pH, Hydrolysis, and Buffers – 229

i. The Language of Acids and Bases – 234

VIII. Organic Chemistry – 245

a. Experiment 18 The Structure of Hydrocarbons – 245

b. Experiment 19 Properties of Hydrocarbons – 259

c. Experiment 20 Carboxylic Acids and Esters – 275

d. Experiment 21 Alcohols – 285

e. Experiment 22 Aldehydes and Ketones – 299

f. Experiment 23 The Synthesis of Aspirin – 315

i. Calculating Percent Yield – 319

g. Experiment 24 The Properties and Preparation of Soap – 329

IX. Biochemistry – 339

a. Experiment 25 The Detection of Fats, Proteins, and Carbohydrates in Foods – 339

b. Experiment 26 The Characterization of Carbohydrates – 355

c. Experiment 27 Enzyme Action – 371

d. Experiment 28 Analysis of Proteins and Amino Acids by Chromatography – 387

e. Experiment 29 Digestion – 397

f. Experiment 30 Extraction of DNA – 407

Appendices – 417

Appendix A Vapor Pressure of Water and Various Temperatures

Appendix B Concentration of Common Acids and Bases – 419

Appendix C Values of Physical Constants – 420

Appendix D Metric Prefixes – 420

Appendix E Conversion Factors – 420

Appendix F Introduction to Chemical Nomenclature – 421 Nomenclature Exercises – 427 – 428

Appendix G Significant Figures and Rounding Numbers – 429

Appendix H Using Excel to Prepare Straight-line Graphs – 433

Periodic Table - Inside Front Cover.