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A History of Western Art

A History of Western Art

5th Edition
By Laurie Adams
Copyright: 2011
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ISBN10: 0073379220 | ISBN13: 9780073379227


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Program Details

1: Why Do We Study the History of Art?

The Artistic Impulse


Why Do We Value Art?

Material Value

Intrinsic Value

Brancusi’s Bird: Manufactured Metal or a Work of Art?

Religious Value

Nationalistic Value

Psychological Value

Art and Illusion

Images and Words

Traditions Equating Artists with Gods

Art and Identification

Reflections and Shadows: Legends of How Art Began

Image Magic


Archaeology and Art History

Methodologies of Art History


Iconography and Iconology



Biography and Autobiography




2: The Language of Art





Expressive Qualities of Line

Lines Used for Modeling


The Illusion of Depth




Types of Shapes

Expressive Qualities of Shape

Light and Color

Physical Properties of Color

Expressive Qualities of Color


Stylistic Terminology

3: Prehistoric Western Europe

The Stone Age


MAP: Prehistoric Site in Europe


Technique: Carving

Technique: Modeling

Technique: Categories of Sculpture


Media: Pigment

BEYOND THE WEST: Rock Paintings of Australia






Architecture: Post-and-Lintel Construction

4: The Ancient Near East

The Neolithic Era

MAP: The Mediterranean and the Ancient Near East


Çatal Hüyük


Primary Source: Inanna

The Uruk Period


Religion: Mesopotamian Gods

Cylinder Seals

From Pictures to Words

Literature: Gilgamesh

Sumer: Early Dynastic Period


Society and Culture: Sargon of Akkad


The Ziggurat of Ur


Society and Culture: The Law Code of Hammurabi

Anatolia: The Hittites


Technique: Glazing

The Neo-Babylonian Empire

Architecture: Round Arches


Society and Culture: Destroying the Archaeological Record

The Scythians

Achaemenid Persia

Architecture: Columns

5: Ancient Egypt

The Gift of the Nile

The Pharaohs

The Egyptian Concept of Kingship

Chronology: Egyptian Kings

MAP: Ancient Egypt and Nubia

The Palette of Narmer

Religion: Egyptian Gods

The Old Kingdom




Technique: The Egyptian Canon of Proportion

The Middle Kingdom

The New Kingdom



The Amarna Period

Tutankhamon’s Tomb

Egypt and Nubia

The Rock-Cut Temple of Ramses II


6: The Aegean

Cycladic Civilization

MAP: The Ancient Aegean World

Minoan Civilization

The Palace at Knossos

Media and Technique: Minoan Fresco



Society and Culture: Minoan Scripts

Discoveries at Thera

The Frescoes

Mycenaean Civilization

Myth: The Legend of Agamemnon

7: The Art of Ancient Greece

MAP: Ancient Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean

Cultural Identity

Government and Philosophy

Philosophy: Plato on Artists

Society and Culture: Women in Ancient Greece

Literature and Drama

“Man Is the Measure of All Things”

Religion: Greek Gods and Their Roman Counterparts

Painting and Pottery

Geometric Style

Orientalizing Style

Archaic Style

Media and Technique: Greek Vases

Late Archaic to Classical Style

Classical to Hellenistic Style


Archaic Style

Early Classical Style

Media and Technique: The Lost-Wax Process

Classical Style

Classical Architecture: The Athenian Acropolis

The Parthenon

Architecture: Plan of the Parthenon

Architecture: The Greek Orders

Myth: Medusa

The Temple of Athena Nike

The Erechtheum

Late Classical Style

The Greek Theater

Architecture: Greek Theater


Style: The “Hermes of Praxiteles”

Hellenistic Period


Myth: The Trojan Horse

8: The Art of the Etruscans

MAP: Etruscan and Roman Italy


Pottery and Sculpture

Women in Etruscan Art

Funerary Art

Cinerary Containers


Tomb Paintings

9: Ancient Rome

MAP: The Roman Empire, A.D. 14-282

Primary Source: Virgil’s Aeneid

Chronology: Roman Periods

Architecture: Arches, Domes, and Vaults

Architectural Types

Domestic Architecture

Public Buildings

History: Julius Caesar

Media: Roman Building Materials

Religious Architecture

Commemorative Architecture

Primary Source: Josephus and the Jewish Wars

Sculptural Types

The Sarcophagus

Media: Color Symbolism in Roman Marble


History: Marcus Aurelius: Emperor and Philosopher

Pictorial Style

Painting and Mosaic

10: Early Christian and Byzantine Art

A New Religion

Constantine and Christianity

The Divergence of East and West

Religion: Christianity and the Scriptures

Early Christian Art


Religion: Christian Symbolism

History: The Catacombs


Religion: Saint Peter

Centrally Planned Churches

Justinian and the Byzantine Style

San Vitale

Media and Technique: Mosaics

MAP: The Byzantine Empire under Justinian I, A.D. 565

Hagia Sophia

The Codex

The Vienna Genesis

Media: Parchment

Later Byzantine Developments

11: The Early Middle Ages

Islamic Art

Religion: Islam

The Great Mosque, Córdoba

Northern European Art

Anglo-Saxon Metalwork

Primary Source: Beowulf

Hiberno-Saxon Art

Media and Technique: Manuscript Illumination

The Carolingian Period

MAP: The Holy Roman Empire under Charlemagne, 814


Religion: Revelation and the Four Symbols of the Evangelists


Ottonian Period

12: Romanesque Art

Economic and Political Developments

Society and Culture: Feudalism

Pilgrimage Roads

MAP: Pilgrimage Roads to Santiago de Compostela, Spain


Sainte-Foy at Conques

Developments at Autun

The Stavelot Reliquary Triptych


Mural Painting

The “Bayeux Tapestry”

13: Gothic Art

Origins of the Gothic Style in France

Early Gothic Architecture: Saint-Denis

Religion: The Life of Saint Denis

Elements of Gothic Architecture

Rib Vaults


Flying Buttresses

Pointed Arches

The Skeleton

Stained-Glass Windows

Society and Culture: Guilds

Romanesque Precursors of Gothic

The Age of Cathedrals


Exterior Architecture of Chartres

Exterior Sculpture of Chartres

Interior of Chartres

Later Developments of the French Gothic Style


Paris: Reliquary Chapel of Sainte-Chapelle

The Saint Louis Psalter

English Gothic

Salisbury Cathedral

German Gothic

Cologne Cathedral

14: Precursors of the Renaissance

Thirteenth-Century Italy

Nicola Pisano


MAP: Leading Art Centers in Renaissance Italy

Fourteenth-Century Italy


Literature: Dante: Poet of Heaven and Hell

Media and Technique: Tempera

Media and Technique: Altarpieces

The Arena Chapel

Media and Technique: Fresco

Painting in Siena

Duccio’s Rucellai Madonna

The Maestà

The Kiss of Judas

Ambrogio Lorenzetti and the Effects of Good Government

The International Gothic Style

Claus Sluter

The Limbourg Brothers

15: The Early Renaissance

Italy in the Fifteenth Century

Renaissance Humanism

Society and Culture: The Humanist Movement

Society and Culture: Soldiers of Fortune

The Competition for the Florence Baptistery Doors

Brunelleschi’s Architecture

History: Vasari’s Lives

Linear Perspective

Ghiberti’s East Baptistery Doors

The Early Fifteenth-Century Painting


International Style in Italy: Gentile da Fabriano

Technique: Aerial Perspective

Early Fifteenth-Century Sculpture: Donatello’s David

Second-Generation Developments

Leon Battista Alberti

The Theme of David and Goliath

The Equestrian Portrait

State Portraits

Media: Oil Painting

Monumentality versus Spirituality in Fifteenth-Century Painting

Filippo Lippi

Andrea Mantegna’s Illusionism

History: Isabella d’Este

Botticelli’s Mythological Subject Matter

Philosophy: The Platonic Academy

Fifteenth-Century Painting in the Netherlands

MAP: Northern and Central Europe in the Renaissance

Campin’s Mérode Altarpiece

Jan van Eyck

Rogier van der Weyden

Later Developments

16: The High Renaissance in Italy


The Ideal of the Circle and Centrally Planned Churches

St. Peter’s and the Central Plan

History: Julius II

Painting and Sculpture

Leonardo da Vinci

Technique: Sfumato

Michelangelo Buonarroti


Developments in Venice

Gentile Bellini

Giovanni Bellini and the Sacra Conversazione

Theory: Pietro Aretino on Color versus Drawing



17: Mannerism and the Later Sixteenth Century in Italy

Politics and Religion

History: The Reformation


Mannerist Painting

Society and Culture: Vasari on Women Artists

Mannerist Sculpture

History: The Counter-Reformation

Counter-Reformation Painting


History: The Painter’s Daughter

El Greco

Architecture: Andrea Palladio

Theory: The Four Books of Architecture

18: Sixteenth-Century Painting and Printmaking in Northern Europe

Humanism in the North

MAP: Northern and Central Europe in the Renaissance

The Netherlands

Hieronymus Bosch

History: Martin Luther

Caterina van Hemessen

Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Literature: W.H. Auden’s Icarus


Albrecht Dürer

Media and Technique: Printmaking

Society and Culture: The Myth of the Mad Artist

History: Erasmus

Matthias Grünewald

Lucas Cranach

Hans Holbein the Younger

19: The Baroque Style in Western Europe

Religion, Politics, and Science

Baroque Style

MAP: Europe during the Baroque Style




Society and Culture: The French Academy


Sculpture: Gianlorenzo Bernini

Italian Baroque Painting


Artemisia Gentileschi

Society and Culture: Women as Artists from Antiquity to the 17th Century

Giovanni Battista Gaulli

Baroque Painting in Northern Europe

Flanders: Peter Paul Rubens

Holland: Rembrandt van Rijn

Technique: Etching

BEYOND THE WEST: Mughal Art and the Baroque

Frans Hals

Judith Leyster

Jan Vermeer

Jacob van Ruisdael

Maria van Oosterwyck

Spanish Baroque Painting

Juan Sánchez Cotán

Francesco de Zurburán

Diego Velázquez

French Baroque Painting: Nicolas Poussin

20: Rococo, the Eighteenth Century, and Revival Styles

Cultural Developments

Society and Culture: Salons and Salonnières

The Age of Enlightenment

Painting in France

Antoine Watteau

Jean-Honoré Fragonard

Adélaide Labille-Guiard

Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun

History: Prelude to the French Revolution

Bourgeois Realism: Jean-Baptiste Chardin

Painting in England

Thomas Gainsborough

William Hogarth

Rococo Architecture in Germany

Balthasar Neumann

Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann

Dominikus Zimmermann

Architectural Revivals in England

Classicism: Lord Burlington and Robert Adam

Gothic Revival: Horace Walpole

Neoclassicism: Angelica Kauffmann

American Painting

John Singleton Copley

Benjamin West

21: Neoclassicism: The Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

The Neoclassical Style in France

Jacques-Louis David

Chronology: The French Revolution and the Reign of Napoleon

Napoleon and the Arts

Antonio Canova

Marie-Guillemine Benoist

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

MAP: The Napoleonic Empire, 1812

Developments in America

The American Revolution

Chronology: The American Campaign for Independence

The Architecture of Thomas Jefferson

MAP: The United States, showing states and territories during Jefferson’s presidency, c. 1803

John Trumbull’s Declaration of Independence

Greenough’s George Washington

22: Romanticism: The Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

The Romantic Movement


Music and Poetry: Romanticism in Music and Poetry


Painting in Europe

William Blake

Media and Technique: Watercolor

Théodore Géricault

Society and Culture: The Salon

Eugène Delacroix

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

Media and Technique: Aquatint

Germany: Caspar David Friedrich

Theory: The Aesthetic of the Sublime

England: John Constable and Joseph Mallord William Turner

Painting in the United States

Thomas Cole

Literature: American Romantic Writers

Folk Art: Edward Hicks

Albert Bierstadt

23: Nineteenth-Century Realism

Cultural and Political Context

Philosophy: The Communist Manifesto

Literature: Realism

French Realism

Jean-François Millet

Rosa Bonheur

Gustave Courbet

Honoré Daumier

Media and Technique: Lithography

Society and Culture: Daumier and Satire


France: Nadar

England: Julia Margaret Cameron

America: Mathew Brady

American Realist Painting

Thomas Eakins’s Gross Clinic

Henry Ossawa Tanner

French Realism in the 1860s

Édouard Manet’s Déjeuner sur l’Herbe

Manet’s Olympia


Joseph Paxton: The Crystal Palace

Bridges: The Roeblings

The Eiffel Tower

Origins of the Skyscraper: Louis Sullivan

24: Nineteenth-Century Impressionism

Context and Style

Society and Culture: Urban Renewal during the Second Empire

Painting in France

Édouard Manet: 1880s

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Edgar Degas

Mary Cassatt

Berthe Morisot

Claude Monet

Views of Paris: Renoir and Pissarro

BEYOND THE WEST: Japanese Woodblock Prints

French Sculpture: Auguste Rodin

American Painting at the Turn of the Century

Winslow Homer

John Singer Sargent

“Art for Art’s Sake”

Whistler vs. Ruskin

25: Post-Impressionism and the Late Nineteenth Century

Post-Impressionist Painting

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Paul Cézanne

An Apple a Day…

Georges Seurat

Vincent van Gogh

“Dear Theo”—The Letters of Vincent van Gogh

Paul Gauguin

BEYOND THE WEST: Gauguin and Oceania


Society and Culture: The Symbolist Movement

Gustave Moreau

Edvard Munch

Naïve Painting: Henri Rousseau

History: Freud on the Mechanisms of Dreaming

26: The Early Twentieth Century: Picasso, Fauvism, Expressionism, and Matisse

Culture and Context

Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse

Symbolism: Picasso’s Blue Period

Literature: Wallace Stevens: “The Man with the Blue Guitar”

BEYOND THE WEST: African Art and the European Avant-Garde

Fauvism: Matisse in 1905-1906


The Bridge (Die Brücke)

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

Emil Nolde

The Blue Rider (Der Blaue Reiter)

Vassily Kandinsky

Franz Marc

Käthe Kollwitz

Matisse after Fauvism

Harmony in Red

Dance 1


27: Cubism, Futurism, and Related Twentieth-Century Styles



History: Gertrude Stein

Analytic Cubism: Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque


Media and Technique: Collage and Assemblage

Synthetic Cubism

Picasso’s Surrealism

Picasso’s Guernica

Other Early Twentieth-Century Developments


Fernand Léger’s The City

Piet Mondrian

The Armory Show

Stuart Davis

Aaron Douglas and the Harlem Renaissance

Kazimir Malevich: Suprematism



Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie Style

Architecture: Cantilever

The International Style

Holland: De Stijl

Germany: The Bauhaus

France: Le Corbusier

The United States

28: Dada, Surrealism, Social Realism, Regionalism, and Abstraction


Marcel Duchamp

Jean (Hans) Arp


Man Ray

Paul Klee

Salvador Dalí

Joan Miró

René Magritte

Sculpture Derived from Surrealism

Max Ernst

Alberto Giacometti

Henry Moore

Alexander Calder

The United States: Regionalism and Social Realism

Grant Wood

Jacob Lawrence

Edward Hopper

James VanDerZee

Dorothea Lange


Diego Rivera

Frida Kahlo

Toward American Abstraction

Alfred Stieglitz

Georgia O’Keeffe

Transcendental Painting

Society and Culture: American Self-Taught Painters

29: Mid-Century American Abstraction

The Teachers: Hans Hofmann and Josef Albers

Abstract Expressionism

The New York School

Arshile Gorky

Theory: The Avant-Garde

Action Painting

Jackson Pollock

Media and Technique: Navajo Sand Painting

Franz Kline

Willem de Kooning

Mark Rothko

Color Field Painting

Helen Frankenthaler

Media and Technique: Acrylic

Frank Stella

Ellsworth Kelly

West Coast Abstraction: Richard Diebenkorn


Isamu Noguchi

David Smith

Louise Nevelson

30: Pop Art, Op Art, Minimalism, and Conceptualism

Pop Art in England: Richard Hamilton

Pop Art in the United States

Jasper Johns

Robert Rauschenberg

Andy Warhol

Roy Lichtenstein

Tom Wesselmann

Wayne Thiebaud


Op Art


Donald Judd

Dan Flavin

Agnes Martin

Eva Hesse


Joseph Kosuth

Sol Lewitt

Action Sculpture: Joseph Beuys

31: Continuity, Innovation, and Globalization

Return to Realism

Chuck Close

Richard Estes

Duane Hanson

Ron Mueck and Constantin Brancusi


Gilbert and George

Laurie Anderson


The Geodesic Dome: R. Buckminster Fuller

Post-Modern Architecture

Environmental Art

Robert Smithson

Andy Goldsworthy

Christo and Jeanne-Claude

Urban Environment

Society and Culture: Government Funding and Censorship


Feminist Art

Judy Chicago

Kiki Smith

Elizabeth Murray

Race and Gender

Bob Thompson

Romare Bearden

Kara Walker

Yasumasa Morimura

Plus ça change…

Susan Rothenberg

Anselm Kiefer

Maya Ying Lin

Nancy Graves

Bruce Nauman and Marcel Duchamp

Cindy Sherman

Video Art