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Energy Systems Engineering: Evaluation and Implementation, Third Edition
Energy Systems Engineering: Evaluation and Implementation, Third Edition

Energy Systems Engineering: Evaluation and Implementation, Third Edition, 3rd Edition

ISBN10: 1259585107 | ISBN13: 9781259585104
By Francis Vanek, Louis Albright and Largus Angenent
© 2016

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* The estimated amount of time this product will be on the market is based on a number of factors, including faculty input to instructional design and the prior revision cycle and updates to academic research-which typically results in a revision cycle ranging from every two to four years for this product. Pricing subject to change at any time.

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A definitive guide to energy systems engineering—thoroughly updated for the latest technologies

This fully revised book features comprehensive coverage of all types of energy systems, from fossil fuels and nuclear energy to solar, wind, biofuels, and energy systems for transportation. Throughout, new and expanded examples and end-of-chapter problems help to provide a practical understanding of each topic.


Written by a team of energy experts, Energy Systems Engineering Evaluation and Implementation, Third Edition, clearly explains how each technology works and discusses benefits and liabilities. You will get up-to-date information on global emission trends, the volatile price and supply of natural gas and oil, and the accelerated growth of alternative energy sources. Detailed methods to assess environmental impact, project scope, cost, energy consumption, and efficiency are provided.

  • Offers a technology-neutral, portfolio approach to energy system options and policy tools
  • Includes new and expanded discussions so small scale nuclear fusion, wind turbine designs for lower average wind speed, and electric vehicles
  • Explains how to project future output from nonconventional oil and gas
  • Covers waste-to-energy conversion and waste water energy recovery
  • Features high-quality illustrations and tables

Note to Instructors
1 Introduction
1-1 Overview
1-2 Introduction
1-2-1 Historic Growth in Energy Supply
1-3 Relationship between Energy, Population, and Wealth
1-3-1 Correlation between Energy Use and Wealth
1-3-2 Human Development Index: An Alternative Means of Evaluating Prosperity
1-4 Pressures Facing World due to Energy Consumption
1-4-1 Industrial versus Emerging Countries
1-4-2 Pressure on CO2 Emissions
1-4-3 Observations about Energy Use and CO2 Emissions Trends
1-4-4 Discussion: Contrasting Mainstream and Deep Ecologic Perspectives on Energy Requirements
1-5 Energy Issues and the Contents of This Book
1-5-1 Motivations, Techniques, and Applications
1-5-2 Initial Comparison of Three Underlying Primary Energy Sources
1-6 Units of Measure Used in Energy Systems
1-6-1 Metric (SI) Units
1-6-2 U.S. Standard Customary Units
1-6-3 Units Related to Oil Production and Consumption
1-7 Summary
Further Reading
2 Systems and Policy Tools
2-1 Overview
2-2 Introduction
2-2-1 Conserving Existing Energy Resources versus Shifting to Alternative Resources
2-2-2 The Concept of Sustainable Development
2-3 Fundamentals of the Systems Approach
2-3-1 Initial Definitions
2-3-2 Steps in the Application of the Systems Approach
2-3-3 Stories, Scenarios, and Models
2-3-4 Systems Approach Applied to the Scope of This Book: Energy/Climate Challenges Compared to Other Challenges
2-4 Other Systems Tools Applied to Energy
2-4-1 Systems Dynamics Models: Exponential Growth, Saturation, and Causal Loops
2-5 Other Tools for Energy Systems
2-5-1 Kaya Equation: Factors That Contribute to Overall CO2 Emissions
2-5-2 Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Return on Investment
2-5-3 Multi-Criteria Analysis of Energy Systems Decisions
2-5-4 Choosing among Alternative Solutions Using Optimization
2-5-5 Understanding Contributing Factors to Time-Series Energy Trends Using Divisia Analysis
2-5-6 Incorporating Uncertainty into Analysis Using Probabilistic Approaches and Monte Carlo Simulation
2-6 Energy Policy as a Catalyst for the Pursuit of Sustainability
2-7 Summary
Further Reading
3 Engineering Economic Tools
3-1 Overview
3-2 Introduction
3-2-1 The Time Value of Money
3-3 Economic Analysis of Energy Projects and Systems
3-3-1 Definition of Terms
3-3-2 Evaluation without Discounting
3-3-3 Discounted Cash Flow Analysis
3-3-4 Maximum Payback Period Method
3-3-5 Levelized Cost of Energy
3-4 Direct versus External Costs and Benefits
3-5 Intervention in Energy Investments to Achieve Social Aims
3-5-1 Methods of Intervention in Energy Technology Investments
3-5-2 Critiques of Intervention in Energy Investments
3-6 NPV Case Study Example
3-7 Summary
Further Reading
4 Climate Change and Climate Modeling
4-1 Overview
4-2 Introduction
4-2-1 Relationship between the Greenhouse Effect and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
4-2-2 Carbon Cycle and Solar Radiation
4-2-3 Quantitative Imbalance in CO2 Flows into and out of the Atmosphere
4-2-4 Consensus on the Human Link to Climate Change: Taking the Next Steps
4-2-5 Early Indications of Change and Remaining Areas of Uncertainty
4-3 Modeling Climate and Climate Change
4-3-1 Relationship between Wavelength, Energy Flux, and Absorption
4-3-2 A Model of the Earth-Atmosphere System
4-3-3 General Circulation Models of Global Climate
4-4 Climate in the Future
4-4-1 Positive and Negative Feedback from Climate Change
4-4-2 Scenarios for Future Rates of CO2 Emissions, CO2 Stabilization Values, and Average Global Temperature
4-4-3 Recent Efforts to Counteract Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol (1997–2012)
4-4-4 Assessing the Effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol and Description of Post-Kyoto Efforts
4-5 Summary
Further Reading
5 Fossil Fuel Resources
5-1 Overview
5-2 Introduction
5-2-1 Characteristics of Fossil Fuels
5-2-2 Current Rates of Consumption and Total Resource Availability
5-2-3 CO2 Emissions Comparison and a “Decarbonization” Strategy
5-3 Decline of Conventional Fossil Fuels and a Possible Transition to Nonconventional Alternatives
5-3-1 Hubbert Curve Applied to Resource Lifetime
5-3-2 Potential Role for Nonconventional Fossil Resources as Substitutes for Oil and Gas
5-3-3 Example of U.S. and World Nonconventional Oil Development
5-3-4 Discussion: Potential Ecological and Social Impacts of Evolving Fossil Fuel Extraction
5-3-5 Conclusion: The Past and Future of Fossil Fuels
5-4 Summary
Further Reading
6 Stationary Combustion Systems
6-1 Overview
6-2 Introduction
6-2-1 A Systems Approach to Combustion Technology
6-3 Fundamentals of Combustion Cycle Calculation
6-3-1 Brief Review of Thermodynamics
6-3-2 Rankine Vapor Cycle
6-3-3 Brayton Gas Cycle
6-4 Advanced Combustion Cycles for Maximum Efficiency
6-4-1 Supercritical Cycle
6-4-2 Combined Cycle
6-4-3 Cogeneration and Combined Heat and Power
6-5 Economic Analysis of Stationary Combustion Systems
6-5-1 Calculation of Levelized Cost of Electricity Production
6-5-2 Case Study of Small-Scale Cogeneration Systems
6-5-3 Case Study of Combined Cycle Cogeneration Systems
6-5-4 Integrating Different Electricity Generation Sources into the Grid
6-6 Incorporating Environmental Considerations into Combustion Project Cost Analysis
6-7 Reducing CO2 by Combusting Nonfossil Fuels or Capturing Emissions
6-7-1 Waste-to-Energy Conversion Systems
6-7-2 Electricity Generation from Biomass Combustion
6-7-3 Waste Water Energy Recovery and Food Waste Conversion to Electricity
6-7-4 Zero-Carbon Systems for Combusting Fossil Fuels and Generating Electricity
6-8 Systems Issues in Combustion in the Future
6-9 Representative Levelized Cost Calculation for Electricity from Natural Gas
6-10 Summary
Further Reading
7 Carbon Sequestration
7-1 Overview
7-2 Introduction
7-3 Indirect Sequestration
7-3-1 The Photosynthesis Reaction: The Core Process of Indirect Sequestration
7-3-2 Indirect Sequestration in Practice
7-3-3 Future Prospects for Indirect Sequestration
7-4 Geological Storage of CO2
7-4-1 Removing CO2 from Waste Stream
7-4-2 Options for Direct Sequestration in Geologically Stable Reservoirs
7-4-3 Prospects for Geological Sequestration
7-5 Sequestration through Conversion of CO2 into Inert Materials
7-6 Direct Removal of CO2 from Atmosphere for Sequestration
7-7 Overall Comparison of Sequestration Options
7-8 Summary
Further Reading
8 Nuclear Energy Systems
8-1 Overview
8-2 Introduction
8-2-1 Brief History of Nuclear Energy
8-2-2 Current Status of Nuclear Energy
8-3 Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Resources
8-3-1 Reactions Associated with Nuclear Energy
8-3-2 Availability of Resources for Nuclear Energy
8-4 Reactor Designs: Mature Technologies and Emerging Alternatives
8-4-1 Established Reactor Designs
8-4-2 Alternative Fission Reactor Designs
8-5 Nuclear Fusion
8-6 Nuclear Energy and Society: Environmental, Political, and Security Issues
8-6-1 Contribution of Nuclear Energy to Reducing CO2 Emissions
8-6-2 Management of Radioactive Substances during Life Cycle of Nuclear Energy
8-6-3 Nuclear Energy and the Prevention of Proliferation
8-6-4 The Effect of Public Perception on Nuclear Energy
8-6-5 Future Prospects for Nuclear Energy
8-7 Representative Levelized Cost Calculation for Electricity from Nuclear Fission
8-8 Summary
Further Reading
9 The Solar Resource
9-1 Overview
9-1-1 Symbols Used in This Chapter
9-2 Introduction
9-2-1 Availability of Energy from the Sun and Geographic Availability
9-3 Definition of Solar Geometric Terms and Calculation of Sun’s Position by Time of Day
9-3-1 Relationship between Solar Position and Angle of Incidence on Solar Surface
9-3-2 Method for Approximating Daily Energy Reaching a Solar Device
9-4 Effect of Diffusion on Solar Performance
9-4-1 Direct, Diffuse, and Global Insolation
9-4-2 Climatic and Seasonal Effects
9-4-3 Effect of Surface Tilt on Insolation Diffusion
9-5 Summary
Further Reading
10 Solar Photovoltaic Technologies
10-1 Overview
10-1-1 Symbols Used in This Chapter
10-2 Introduction
10-2-1 Alternative Approaches to Manufacturing PV Panels
10-3 Fundamentals of PV Cell Performance
10-3-1 Losses in PV Cells and Gross Current Generated by Incoming Light
10-3-2 Net Current Generated as a Function of Device Parameters
10-3-3 Other Factors Affecting Performance
10-3-4 Calculation of Unit Cost of PV Panels
10-4 Design and Operation of Practical PV Systems
10-4-1 Available System Components for Different Types of Designs
10-4-2 Estimating Output from PV System: Basic Approach Using PV Watts
10-4-3 Estimating Output from PV System: Extended Approach
10-4-4 Year-to-Year Variability of PV System Output
10-4-5 Economics of PV Systems
10-5 Life-Cycle Energy and Environmental Considerations
10-6 Representative Levelized Cost Calculation for Electricity from Solar PV
10-7 Summary
Further Reading
11 Active Solar Thermal Applications
11-1 Overview
11-2 Symbols Used in This Chapter
11-3 General Comments
11-4 Flat-Plate Solar Collectors
11-4-1 General Characteristics, Flat-Plate Solar Collectors
11-4-2 Solar Collectors with Liquid as the Transport Fluid
11-4-3 Solar Collectors with Air as the Transport Fluid
11-4-4 Unglazed Solar Collectors
11-4-5 Other Heat Transfer Fluids for Flat-Plate Solar Collectors
11-4-6 Selective Surfaces
11-4-7 Reverse-Return Piping
11-4-8 Hybrid PV/Thermal Systems
11-4-9 Evacuated-Tube Solar Collectors
11-4-10 Performance Case Study of an Evacuated Tube System
11-5 Concentrating Collectors
11-5-1 General Characteristics, Concentrating Solar Collectors
11-5-2 Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Collectors
11-5-3 Parabolic Dish Concentrating Solar Collectors
11-5-4 Power Tower Concentrating Solar Collectors
11-5-5 Solar Cookers
11-6 Heat Transfer in Flat-Plate Solar Collectors
11-6-1 Solar Collector Energy Balance
11-6-2 Testing and Rating Procedures for Flat-Plate, Glazed Solar Collectors
11-6-3 Heat Exchangers and Thermal Storages
11-6-4 f-Chart for System Analysis
11-6-5 f-Chart for System Design
11-6-6 Optimizing the Combination of Solar Collector Array and Heat Exchanger
11-6-7 Pebble Bed Thermal Storage for Air Collectors
11-7 Summary
Further Reading
12 Passive Solar Thermal Applications
12-1 Overview
12-2 Symbols Used in This Chapter
12-3 General Comments
12-4 Thermal Comfort Considerations
12-5 Building Enclosure Considerations
12-6 Heating Degree Days and Seasonal Heat Requirements
12-6-1 Adjusting HDD Values to a Different Base Temperature
12-7 Types of Passive Solar Heating Systems
12-7-1 Direct Gain
12-7-2 Indirect Gain, Trombe Wall
12-7-3 Isolated Gain
12-8 Solar Transmission through Windows
12-9 Load:Collector Ratio Method for Analysis
12-10 Conservation Factor Addendum to the LCR Method
12-11 Load:Collector Ratio Method for Design
12-12 Passive Ventilation by Thermal Buoyancy
12-13 Designing Window Overhangs for Passive Solar Systems
12-14 Summary
13 Wind Energy Systems
13-1 Overview
13-2 Introduction
13-2-1 Components of a Turbine
13-2-2 Comparison of Onshore and Offshore Wind
13-2-3 Alternative Turbine Designs: Horizontal versus Vertical Axis
13-3 Using Wind Data to Evaluate a Potential Location
13-3-1 Using Statistical Distributions to Approximate Available Energy
13-3-2 Effects of Height, Season, Time of Day, and Direction on Wind Speed
13-4 Estimating Output from a Specific Turbine for a Proposed Site
13-4-1 Rated Capacity and Capacity Factor
13-5 Turbine Design
13-5-1 Theoretical Limits on Turbine Performance
13-5-2 Tip Speed Ratio, Induced Radial Wind Speed, and Optimal Turbine Rotation Speed
13-5-3 Analysis of Turbine Blade Design
13-5-4 Steps in Turbine Design Process
13-6 Economic and Social Dimensions of Wind Energy Feasibility
13-6-1 Comparison of Large- and Small-Scale Wind
13-6-2 Integration of Wind with Other Intermittent and Dispatchable Resources
13-6-3 Public Perception of Wind Energy and Social Feasibility
13-7 Representative Levelized Cost Calculation for Electricity from Utility-Scale Wind
13-8 Summary
Further Reading
14 Bioenergy Resources and Systems
14-1 Overview
14-2 Introduction
14-2-1 Policies
14-2-2 Net Energy Balance Ratio and Life-Cycle Analysis
14-2-3 Productivity of Fuels per Unit of Cropland per Year
14-3 Biomass
14-3-1 Sources of Biomass
14-3-2 Pretreatment Technologies
14-4 Platforms
14-4-1 Sugar Platform
14-4-2 Syngas Platform
14-4-3 Bio-oil Platform
14-4-4 Carboxylate Platform
14-5 Alcohol
14-5-1 Sugarcane to Ethanol
14-5-2 Corn Grain to Ethanol
14-5-3 Cellulosic Ethanol
14-5-4 n-Butanol
14-6 Biodiesel
14-6-1 Production Processes
14-6-2 Life-Cycle Assessment
14-7 Methane and Hydrogen (Biogas)
14-7-1 Anaerobic Digestion
14-7-2 Anaerobic Hydrogen-Producing Systems
14-8 Summary
Further Reading
15 Transportation Energy Technologies
15-1 Overview
15-2 Introduction
15-2-1 Definition of Terms
15-2-2 Endpoint Technologies for a Petroleum- and Carbon-Free Transportation System
15-2-3 Competition between Emerging and Incumbent Technologies
15-3 Vehicle Design Considerations and Alternative Propulsion Designs
15-3-1 Criteria for Measuring Vehicle Performance
15-3-2 Options for Improving Conventional Vehicle Efficiency
15-3-3 Power Requirements for Nonhighway Modes
15-4 Alternatives to ICEVs: Alternative Fuels and Propulsion Platforms
15-4-1 Battery-Electric Vehicles
15-4-2 Hybrid Vehicles
15-4-3 Biofuels: Adapting Bio-energy for Transportation Applications
15-4-4 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems and Vehicles
15-5 Well-to-Wheel Analysis as a Means of Comparing Alternatives
15-6 Summary
Further Reading
16 Systems Perspective on Transportation Energy
16-1 Overview
16-2 Introduction
16-2-1 Ways of Categorizing Transportation Systems
16-2-2 Influence of Transportation Type on Energy Requirements
16-2-3 Units for Measuring Transportation Energy Efficiency
16-3 Recent Trends and Current Assessment of Energy Use in Transportation Systems
16-3-1 Passenger Transportation Energy Trends and Current Status
16-3-2 Freight Transportation Energy Trends and Current Status
16-3-3 Estimated CO2 Emissions Factors by Mode
16-4 Applying a Systems Approach to Transportation Energy
16-4-1 Modal Shifting to More Efficient Modes
16-4-2 Rationalizing Transportation Systems to Improve Energy Efficiency
16-4-3 Integrating Light-Duty Vehicles and Electricity Supply to Optimize Vehicle Charging and Grid Performance
16-5 Understanding Transition Pathways for New Technology
16-6 Toward a Policy for Future Transportation Energy from a Systems Perspective
16-6-1 Metropolitan Region Energy Efficiency Plan
16-6-2 Allocating Emerging Energy Sources and Technologies to Transportation Sectors
16-7 Summary
Further Reading
17 Conclusion: Creating the Twenty-First-Century Energy System
17-1 Overview
17-2 Introduction: Energy in the Context of the Economic-Ecologic Conflict
17-2-1 Comparison of Three Energy System Endpoints: Toward a Portfolio Approach
17-2-2 Summary of End-of-Chapter Levelized Cost Values
17-2-3 Other Emerging Technologies Not Previously Considered
17-2-4 Comparison of Life Cycle CO2 Emissions per Unit of Energy
17-3 Sustainable Energy for Developing Countries
17-4 Pathways to a Sustainable Energy Future: A Case Study
17-4-1 Renewable Scenario Results
17-4-2 Comparison to Nuclear and CCS Pathways
17-4-3 Comparison of Industrialized versus Emerging Contribution
17-4-4 Discussion
17-5 The Role of the Energy Professional in Creating the Energy Systems of the Future
17-5-1 Roles for Energy Professionals Outside of Formal Work
17-6 Summary
Further Reading
A Perpetual Julian Date Calendar
B LCR Table
C CF Table
D Numerical Answers to Select Problems
E Common Conversions
F Information about Thermodynamic Constants

About the Author

Francis Vanek

Francis M. Vanek, Ph.D., is a Lecturer and Research Assistant in the Departments of Mechanical And Aerospace Engineering and Civil And Environmental Engineering and the Systems Engineering Program at Cornell University, where he specializes in the areas of energy efficiency, alternative energy, and energy for transportation. He is also a consultant with Taitem Engineering of Ithaca, NY.

Louis Albright

Louis D. Albright, Ph.D., is Professor of Biological and Environmental Engineering and Stephen H. Weiss Presidential Fellow at Cornell University. A Fellow of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), he is the author of Environmental Control for Animals and Plants.

Largus Angenent

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