Unit: Awareness of Others
Understanding Unconscious Bias and Unintentional Racism, Jean Moule, Phi Delta Kappan, 2009
Awareness of our biases about others establishes the first step toward understanding ourselves and improving our beliefs, thoughts, words, actions, and interactions with other people. Unconscious bias leads to stereotypes, prejudices, and racism that may match one's personal beliefs and generate unexpected outcomes. Educators must commit to continued awareness to strengthen school communities.
Becoming Citizens of the World, Vivien Stewart, Educational Leadership, 2007
Global competence in today's world requires young people to understand the interconnectedness of economies with the rise of Asia; that science and technology are vital changes in the world; that health and security matters are interrelated and impacted everyone everywhere, and that the world's demographics have accelerated international migration patterns. U.S. students must expand their world knowledge, international language skills, and civic values. The trends and suggestions associated with the challenges of living in a globalized society are described in detail.
Welcome to America: Now Speak English, Bridget Bunten, Multicultural Education, 2010
All classroom teachers interact with students for whom English is a new or difficult language. However, English Language Learner (ELL) coursework or certification requirements are not required in most states. And, although teachers may say they want all their students to achieve, many teachers do not want to help ELL students. From theory and research, pivotal practices are provided to help guide and support teachers in the cultural awareness and transformation.
"What are You?" Biracial Children in the Classroom, Traci P. Baxley, Childhood Education, 2008
On the 2000 U.S. Census, for the first time Americans were given the opportunity to identify themselves as biracial. Approximately 2.4 percent of the U.S. population or 6.8 million people could report their heritages and biracial identities accurately. Biracial students comprise one of the fastest growing populations in in today's schools and classrooms. Educators need to be aware of the biracial identity and practices that support biracial students intellectually, emotionally, and socially to promote multicultural education for all students in all classrooms.
The Possibilities and Challenges of Developing Teachers' Social Justice Beliefs, Althier Lazar, Online Yearbook of Urban Learning, 2012
Teachers are charged with raising their students' test scores; however, teachers tend to associate academic achievement with specific cultural characteristics. Thus, teachers feel and act upon the conviction that security related to their jobs is more important than their concern for educational equity and social justice. This study shows ways to achieve both outcomes.
Unit: Awareness of Self
I Don't Think I'm Biased, Pat Clark and Eva M. Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Teaching Tolerance, 2010
Classroom teachers and teacher candidates continue to grapple with self-awareness of their biases, stereotypes, and prejudices in combination with the ways their beliefs influence their teaching and, thus, their students' achievement. Acquiring cultural competence requires experiences for teachers and candidates to encounter different cultures and examine their beliefs, thoughts, words, actions, and interactions.
Cultivating an Understanding of Privilege among Teacher Candidates, Judith S. Kaufman and S. Maxwell Hines, Race, Gender & Class, 2010
Teacher candidates viewing the public Broadcasting System (PBS) 2003 documentary, Race: The Power of an Illusion, reveal the incongruity in their personal attitudes about race and privilege in society and their professional attitudes about race and privilege in schools. This pedagogical tool can stimulate valuable conversations and initiate needed transformation.
A Case Study of Seven Preservice Teachers' Emerging Philosophy about Multicultural Education, Margaret M. Ferrara, Patricia J. Larke, and Jemimah Lea, National Forum of Multicultural Issues Journal, 2010
Bringing a range of preconceptions associated with culture, cultural characteristics, and cultural competency, teacher candidates' philosophies of education were assessed at three critical times during their preparation programs noting their individual paths of transformation with time and experience.
Unheard Voices of Minority Teacher Candidates in a Teacher Education Program, Tunde Szecsi and Carolyn Spillman, Multicultural Education, 2012
While the number of teacher candidates from underrepresented populations is growing rapidly, they still account for less than ten percent of the teaching workforce. Teacher candidates from underrepresented populations explain that, although teaching was not their first choice, they want to give support to students from underrepresented populations and receive support in their teacher preparation programs, without preferential treatment.
Rediscovering Good Teaching: Exploring Selfhood and Solidarity in Urban Contexts, Timothy Mahoney, Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research, 2012
Immersed in a different sociocultural context, teacher candidates lived and worked in their new setting to explore and experience teacher selfhood and teacher solidarity to learn more about themselves personally, professionally, pedagogically, and politically.
Unit: Awareness of Teacher Preparation
What Influence the Development of Multicultural Teaching Competencies? Eunsook Hong, Porter Troutman, Stephanie Hartzell, and Carli Kyles, Journal of Multicultural in Education, 2010
The relationships between multicultural experiences with multicultural teaching competencies were examined focusing on class standing, race, multicultural courses, experiences with inner-city program volunteer activities, and personal experiences with racial diversity. A teacher candidate must become a multicultural person first.
Productive Dissonance: A Musical-analytical Exploration of Teacher Educator Perceptions in a Multicultural Education Program, Lynn Violet Clark, International Journal of Multicultural Education, 2010
Using the musical metaphors of consonance (elements fit together), counterpoint (two or more elements occur simultaneously and harmoniously), dissonance (elements do not fit together), and resonance (elements continue to vibrate), various multicultural instructional approaches are examined for cooperation and conflict transforming teacher preparation of contemporary teacher candidates.
Discarding the Deficit Model, Beth Harry and Janette Klingner, Educational Leadership, 2007
The results of a three-year study reveal that several conditions mar the placement process of students having learning needs and challenges. The authors report that the deficit model is substantiated by the lack of adequate classroom instruction prior to referrals, inconsistencies in policy implementation, and arbitrary referrals and assessment decisions result in disproportionate placement of some minority groups in special education. More resources should be dedicated to providing curriculum and instruction emphasizing effective multicultural education in classrooms.
Approaches to Diversifying the Teaching Force: Attending to Issues of Recruitment, Preparation, and Retention, Anna María Villegas and Danné E. Davis, Teacher Education Quarterly, 2007
The shortage of teachers of color results in unfortunate consequences for all students, especially students of color. Recruitment of teacher candidates of color should become a greater priority that begins in elementary and middle schools continuing through high schools land community colleges where students of color are enrolled. Support from institutions and communities of color can strengthen the commitment of teacher candidates and novice teachers of color in becoming teachers and staying in teacher education serving as role models for future teachers of color.
Unit: Awareness of Learners
Immigrant Students and the Obstacles to Achievement, Tamiko Stratton, et al., Phi Delta Kappan, 2009
The United States was established by immigrants and they continue to contribute to the nation's growth and development. However, immigrant students encounter many challenges that educators should better understand, accept, and offer assistance to immigrant students and their families. Educators play pivotal roles when fulfilling their responsibilities to teach all children.
Status of the Dream: A Study of Dr. King in Little Rock and Memphis Classrooms, Angela Webster-Smith, Arkansas Association of Teacher Education Electronic Journal, 2011
Having attended the last speech given by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the author surveyed 50 elementary school teachers in Memphis and Little Rock to investigate ways they honor life and legacy of Dr. King in their classrooms today in a country where the new American civil right is found on education. Finding from this study show that today's teacher continue to bring historical context through creative instruction that fulfills their state standards and academic expectations. Themes of fairness and equity resonate through the classroom teachers' descriptions.
Student Resistance to Schooling: Disconnections with Education in Rural Appalachia, Katie A. Hendrickson, The High School Journal, 2012
Inequalities in socioeconomic status in rural areas of the United States can lead to student resistance to schooling. A culture clash evolves when middle-class, university taught, worldly wise teachers interact with lower or working class, uneducated parents, and inexperienced students. Preconceived assumptions and unfounded misunderstandings must be deconstructed allowing accurate beliefs and clear communications can be constructed.
Examining Second Language Literacy Development in an Urban Multi-age Classroom, Sharon H. Ulanoff, et al., International Journal of Early Childhood Education, 2007
This article presents ethnographic research conducted in one urban multi-age classroom over three years. Observations revealed three major themes occurring in this sociolinguistic and sociocultural context: students were guided in making meaning of the content by using literacy to connect with prior learning; students were allowed to structure the learning environments to create a safe and welcoming learning communities based on respect with returning students from past years serving as role models; students and teachers were encouraged to take risks with their vocabulary , concepts, and practices.
Building the Movement to End Educational Inequity, Wendy Kopp, Phi Delta Kappan, 2008
Teach for American was established on the premise of addressing educational inequity. When children grow in poverty, they tend to remain academically behind other children. If children of poverty graduate from high school, there is little hope academically or financially of their attending college, entering a career, or contributing to society. Classroom teachers provide the means for children in poverty to possibly overcome their challenges. Teach of American has launched initiatives to prepare classroom teachers and school administrators to work with underserved populations through local programs and community collaborations.
Unit: Awareness of Teaching
Advancing Cultural Competence and Intercultural Consciousness through a Cross- Cultural Simulation with Teacher Candidates, Nancy P. Gallavan and Angela Webster- Smith, Multicultural Education, 2009
To create an authentic learning environment to advance teacher candidates' acquisition, application, and appreciation of cultural competence, the authors facilitated a cross-cultural simulation called Banga with the candidates. During the simulation, participants experience a variety of cultural settings accompanied with the unarticulated rules and established expectations as encountered in our daily lives, especially by individuals with less privilege and power. Candidates become members of marginalized and disenfranchised members of society. The authors share their findings expressed through the layers of reflections shared by the participants accompanied by their benefits for teacher educators to enhance being cultural competent.
Re-centering Curriculum in the Urban Community: The Need for Participatory Democracy and Community-Based Curriculum, H. Prentice Baptiste and Emilie M. Camp, The National Journal of Urban Education & Practice, 2008
Questions regarding the purposes, participants, and particulars of the P-12 curriculum have raised issues about the need to re-center it as a democratic framework. During the last fifty years, three presidents (Johnson, Reagan, and G. W. Bush) have passed extremely different legislative acts that have impacted the possibilities of a democratic framework.
To Follow, Reject, or Flip the Script: Managing Instructional Tension in an Era of High-States Accountability, Jamy Stillman and Lauren Anderson, Language Arts, 2011
The escalation of attention on students' test scores has driven teachers to become more teacher-centered and skills-based manifested as regurgitated answers rather than student-centered, co-constructed problem solving developed through meaningful education. Teacher preparation must balance their programs to support both outcomes with sociocultural learning with creative mechanisms, multimedia portfolios, online forums, and innovative structures.
Reading the World: Supporting Teachers' Professional Development Using Community-Based Critical Literacy Practices, Stacia M. Stribling, Elizabeth K. DeMulder, and Monomalika Day, Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, 2011
Classroom teachers enrolled in a language arts graduate course participated in an activity read the word and read the world to pursue diversity in their communities and own classrooms. Taking the community walk offered teachers opportunities to explore critical issues, engage in critical reflection and analytical dialogue, and become involved with advocacy and action through a variety of projects.
Colorblind to the Reality of Race in America, Ian F. Haney López, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006
The author provides an argument concerning the phenomenon of race relations in the Unvited States and the "color blindness" of many White Americans and its effects on the lives of persons of color. The author argues that there are efforts to ignore the reality of "race" in American life, with people offering many different reasons and rationale. Issues related to the concept of race continue to be litigated the courts.
Unit: Awareness of Classrooms
As Diversity Grows, So Must We, Gary R. Howard, Educational Leadership, 2007
The author proposes that school administrators implement five phases of professional development with their faculties and a staff to (1) build trust, (2) engage personal cultures, (3) confront social dominance, (4) transform instructional practices, and (5) engage the entire school community to understand and promote social justice. These five phases of professional development will help ensure social justice in classroom and schools accompanied with equity and excellent for and among classroom teachers for students in today's world.
"Some People Do Things Different From Us": Exploring Personal and Global Cultures in a First Grade Classroom, Pamela Jewett, The Journal of Children's Literature, 2011
Children's literature offers mechanisms to broaden and enhance readers' views of themselves and others that expand readers' horizons with local and global settings, deepen readers' understanding of people with shared challenges and problems, and broaden readers' interactions with culturally diverse frames of references. The cultural models presented in children's literature promote designing a cultural framework, learning through cultural inquiry, and connecting with other people beyond the standards.
Representations of Native Americans in Elementary School Social Studies: A Critical Look at Instructional Language, Michele R. Mason and Gisela Ernst-Slavit, Multicultural Education, 2010
The language used by teachers when discussing culturally enriched content conveys powerful insights to students in their understanding of the Other and Otherness—particularly the words and tones used to describe the Other in contemporary contexts, historical contexts, and daily routines and references. Helping students establish pluralistic perspectives requires teachers to examine the ways that knowledge, identity, social positioning, and value systems are constructed in the classroom.
A Case for Culturally Relevant Teaching in Science Education and Lessons Learned for Teacher Education, Felicia Moore Mensah, The Journal of Negro Education, 2011
Two major tensions exist in multicultural teacher education including the ever-changing demographics-- preparing a primarily White middle class female teacher workforce for increasing diverse schools, and the questionable effectiveness of teacher education programs—addressing issues of teaching and learning culturally relevant pedagogy on university campuses supported by P-12 clinical field placements.
Multicultural Education in a K-12 Modern Language Department: Reconciling the Professional Development Experience, Martha Bigelow, Pam Wesely, and Lora Opsahl, International Journal of Multicultural Education, 2009
Sustained and embedded professional development has been effective for experienced teachers to enhance their curricular planning, instructional implementation, and assessment procedures particularly when focused on cultural diversity. A group of foreign language teachers combined Banks' approach to curriculum transformation with Wiggins and McTighe's backward design. Their initiative helped them integrate culture and promote social justice into the teaching, learning, and schooling.
Unit: Awareness of Efficacy
"Everything That's Challenging in My School Makes Me a Better Teacher": Negotiating Tensions in Learning to Teach for Equity, Elizabeth Hope Dorman, Journal of Urban Teaching, Learning, and Research
Based on the situated nature of purposive activity in cultural contexts and identity construction from a sociocultural perspective, teachers describe their abilities to negotiate tensions with respect toward culturally responsive, equity-oriented pedagogy. The challenges and solutions exemplify the importance and processes for teachers, particularly novice teachers, to find voice and to make choices that benefit all of their students.
Uncommon Teaching in Commonsense Times: A Case Study of a Critical Multicultural Educator & the Academic Success of Diverse Student Populations, Emilie M. Camp and Heather A. Oesterreich, Multicultural Education, 2010
When teachers reposition commonsense practices, i.e., overuse of worksheets, with uncommon teaching, i.e., abundance of authentic problem-based challenges, they realize that they motivate their students by offering them engaging opportunities to connect their cultures and communities with the content. Uncommon practices must be featured in teacher preparation programs too through inquiry and social action.
Student Teaching Experience in Diverse Settings, White Racial Identity Development and Teacher Efficacy, Diane S. Bloom and Terri Peters, Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 2012
University clinical field places influence the development of White candidates, their racial identity development, and their sense of teacher self-efficacy. Candidates arrive at their clinical field placements with misconceptions about student diversity—specifically urban students of color and the teachers' impact on student learning. Teacher candidates would benefit from sustained conversations about racial identity and self-efficacy throughout their programs emphasizing ways that biases effect assumptions about teaching and achievement.
"Oh, Those Loud Black Girls!:" A Phenomenological Study of Black Girls Talking with an Attitude, Jacqueline B. Koonce, Journal of Language and Literacy Education, 2012
African-American girls may use a speaking pattern called Talking with an Attitude (TWA) particularly to display resistance that results in perceived disrespect. TWA tends to intimate students and teachers of all races and backgrounds. The issue of voice makes visible the double-consciousness (triple-consciousness or more) that many students from underrepresented populations experience. Reasons for using TWA and strategies for guiding and supporting both students and teachers are essential in teacher preparation programs.
Developing Collective Classroom Efficacy: The Teacher's Role as Community Organizer, LeAnn G. Putney and Suzanne H. Broughton, Journal of Teacher Education, 2011
The authors relate the processes of creating shared classroom efficacy with the teacher as organizer to discuss topics and issues in their curriculum, community, and classroom, all of which involve understanding and practice cultural competence. Through their efficacy, the teacher and students become both the promoters and the participants as everyone guides and learns from one another reflective of Vygotsky's view of individual and collective development.
Unit: Awareness of Agency
Community Partnerships: Working Across Institutions to Support Parent Advocacy and Education, Jennifer McCormick and Sara M. Ozuna, Online Yearbook of Urban Teaching, Learning, and Research, 2012
Research conducted with parents, teachers and principals generated three major categories of findings: information that parents need to know from teachers and principals; ways that teachers and principals should share that information with parents; and information about the hierarchy of the school and system to improve channels of communication. These findings indicate that school community partnerships will improve with more cross-institutional collaboration.
Using Multicultural Children's Literature about Criminal Justice Issues: Fostering Aesthetic Reading Responses, Mary Ellen Oslick, The Journal of Multicultural in Education, 2011
Students' experiences with literature depend on the students' cultures and the teacher's proficiencies to guide the students' connections to the literature. Different cultural groups interact differently with various types of literature. African-American boys, in particular, respond uniquely to children's literature about criminal justice issues, a subject frequently considered taboo by many teachers. The boys' responses identify specific personal connections to the stories and to society that teachers and candidates should understand.
Taking Multicultural Education to the Next Level: An Introduction to Differentiated-Multicultural Instruction, Sidonia J. Alenuma-Nimoh, The Journal of Multiculturalism in Education, 2012
Both differentiated instruction and multiculturalism have been incorporated into many classrooms; however, differentiated multicultural instruction advanced education to the next level of understanding, achievement, and productivity. Effective with all learners, particularly learners with exceptionalities and students from underrepresented populations, differentiated multicultural instruction offers a natural and holistic learning environment contributing positively to knowledge construction, content integration, and prejudice reduction.
Sustaining Ourselves under Stressful Times: Strategies to Assist Multicultural Educators, Penelope Wong and Anita E. Fernández, Multicultural Education, 2008
It is well documented that teacher candidates exhibit continued resistance to learning effective multicultural education concepts and practices and for becoming multicultural educators. Resistance also occurs among educators in P-12 as well as higher education institution, including teacher education programs. The authors have developed a theoretical framework described through multiple dimensions for multicultural educators to use for professional development to address such resistance to support their work and to reduce feelings of despair, hopelessness, and burnout.
Realizing Students' Every Day Realities: Community Analysis as a Model for Social Justice, Jeanette Haynes Writer and H. Prentice Baptists, Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, 2009
All students are entitled to participate equitably in learning communities that connect students' lives to learning contexts and authentic opportunities in their schools. The authors describe the Community Analysis (CA) Project featured in a multicultural education course at their university. Analyzing systemic inequities and inequalities along with the presence of privilege and power, preservice teacher discover organized knowledge possessed by students and families that bridge with school curriculum.