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Exhibit 3.2 Types of Organizational Buying Decisions New Task Modified Rebuy Straight Rebuy Customer Needs Information and risk reduction Information about causes and solutions for a new problem; reduce high risk in making a decision with limited knowledge Information and solutions to increase efficiency and/or reduce costs Needs are generally satisfied Nature of Buying Process Number of people involved in process Many Few One Time to make a decision Months or years Month Day Key steps in the buying process (Exhibit 3.1) 1, 2, 3, 8 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 5, 6, 7, 8 Key decision makers Executives and engineers Production and purchasing managers Purchasing agent Selling Strategy For in- supplier Monitor changes in customer needs; respond quickly when problems and new needs arise; provide technical information Act immediately when problems arise with customers; make sure all of customer's needs are satisfied Reinforce relationship For out- supplier Suggest new approach for solving problems; provide technical advice Respond more quickly than present supplier when problem arises; encourage customer to consider an alternative; present information about how new alternative will increase efficiency Convince customer of potential benefits from reexamining choice of supplier; secure recognition and approval as an alternative supplier 68 CHAPTER 3: Buying Behavior and the Buying Process

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