2020c_BEC

Rothaermel_5e

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CHAPTER 4 Internal Analysis: Resources, Capabilities, and Core Competencies 153 Mar. 1); and "Apple wins big in patent case," The Wall Street Journal (2012, Aug. 24). 23. Chesbrough, H. (2006), Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology (Boston: Harvard Business School Press). 24. In 1968, Xerox moved its headquarters from Rochester, New York, to Norwalk, Connecticut. 25. Prahalad, C.K., and G. Hamel (1990, May– June), "The core competence of the corpora- tion," Harvard Business Review. 26. Porter, M.E. (1996, November–December), "What is strategy?" Harvard Business Review: 61–78. 27. Groupon Annual Report, 2012; Groupon investor deck, March 2013; "Don't weep for Groupon ex-CEO Andrew Mason," The Wall Street Journal (2013, Mar. 1); "Groupon CEO fired as daily-deals biz bottoms out," Wired (2013, Feb. 28); "Struggling Groupon ousts its quirky CEO," The Wall Street Journal (2013, Feb. 28); "Why Groupon is over and Facebook and Twitter should follow," Forbes (2012, Aug. 20); "Groupon: Deep discount," The Economist (2012, Aug. 14); "The economics of Groupon," The Economist (2011, Oct. 22); "In Groupon's $6 billion wake, a fleet of start- ups," The New York Times (2011, Mar. 9); and Godin, S. (2008), Tribes: We Need You to Lead Us (New York: Portfolio). 28. This discussion is based on: Mahoney, J.T., and J.R. Pandian (1992), "The resource-based view within the conversation of strategic man- agement," Strategic Management Journal 13: 363–380; Barney, J. (1991), "Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage," Journal of Management 17: 99–120; Dierickx, I., and K. Cool (1989), "Asset stock accumulation and sus- tainability of competitive advantage," Management Science 35: 1504–1513; and Barney, J. (1986), "Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck, and business strategy," Management Science 32: 1231–1241. 29. Lippman, S.A., and R. P. Rumelt (1982), "Uncertain imitability: An analysis of interfirm differences in efficiency under competition," The Bell Journal of Economics 13: 418–438. 30. Arthur, W.B. (1989), "Competing technolo- gies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events," Economics Journal 99: 116–131; and Dierickx, I., and K. Cool (1989), "Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage," Management Science 35: 1504–1513. 31. Krugman, P. (1993), Geography and Trade (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press); and Patton, R.L. (2010), "A history of the U.S. carpet industry," Economic History Association Encyclopedia, http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/patton.carpet. 32. Dierickx, I., and K. Cool (1989), "Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of com- petitive advantage," Management Science 35: 1504–1513. 33. For a detailed discussion of how several stakeholders influenced the CARB to withdraw zero-emissions standard, see: Sony Pictures' doc- umentary "Who Killed the Electric Car?" www. whokilledtheelectriccar.com/. 34. Colias, M. (2016, Sep. 16), "GM says Chevy Bolt electric car to get 238-mile range," The Wall Street Journal; Sparks, D. (2017, Mar. 7), "Chevy Bolt U.S. deliveries decline in February," The Motley Fool. 35. More formally, the number of relationships (r) in a group is a function of its group members (n), with r = n(n − 1)/2. The assumption is that two people, A and B, have only one relationship (A ← → B), rather than two relationships (A → B and A ← B). In the latter case, the number of relationships (r) in a group with n members dou- bles, where r = n(n − 1). 36. This discussion is based on: Hallenborg, L., M. Ceccagnoli, and M. Clendenin (2008), "Intellectual property protection in the global economy," Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Economic Growth 18: 11–34; and Graham, S.J.H. (2008), "Beyond patents: The role of copyrights, trade- marks, and trade secrets in technology commer- cialization," Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Economic Growth 18: 149–171. Moreover, for an insightful discussion on trademarks and sourcing innova- tion, see Bei, X. (2019), "Trademarks, special- ized complementary assets, and the external sourcing of innovation," Research Policy, 48: forthcoming, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2018.11.003. 37. "Cost to develop and win marketing ap- proval for a new drug is $2.6 billion," Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (2014, November). 38. "Lipitor becomes world's top-selling drug," Associated Press (2011, Dec. 28). 39. Sherr, I. (2013, Mar. 1), "U.S. judge reduces Apple's patent award in Samsung case," The Wall Street Journal; and Vascellaro, J.E. (2012, Aug. 25), "Apple wins big in patent case," The Wall Street Journal. 40. Loftus, P. (2014, Mar. 2), "Lipitor: Pfizer aims to sell over-the-counter version," The Wall Street Journal. 41. "Drug prices to plummet in wave of expiring patents," Drugs.com, www.drugs.com/news/ prices-plummet-wave-expiring-patents-32684.html. 42. Leonard-Barton, D. (1992), "Core capabili- ties and core rigidities: A paradox in managing new product development," Strategic Management Journal 13: 111–125. 43. Leonard-Barton, D. (1995), Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation (Boston: Harvard Business School Press). 44. This discussion is based on: Peteraf, M., G. Di Stefano, and G. Verona (2013), "The ele- phant in the room of dynamic capabilities: Bringing two diverging conversations together," Strategic Management Journal 34: 1389–1410; Rothaermel, F.T., and A.M. Hess (2007), "Building dynamic capabilities: Innovation driven by individual-, firm-, and network-level effects," Organization Science 18: 898–921; Eisenhardt, K.M., and Martin, J. (2000), "Dynamic capabilities: What are they?" Strategic Management Journal 21: 1105–1121; and Teece, D.J., G. Pisano, and A. Shuen (1997), "Dynamic capabilities and strategic management," Strategic Management Journal 18: 509–533. 45. Dierickx, I., and K. Cool (1989), "Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage," Management Science 35: 1504–1513. 46. Dierickx, I., and K. Cool (1989), "Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage," Management Science 35: 1504–1513. 47. Eisenhardt, K.M., and J. Martin (2000), "Dynamic capabilities: What are they?" Strategic Management Journal 21: 1105–1121. 48. This discussion is based on: Porter, M.E. (1985), Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance (New York: Free Press); Porter, M.E. (1996, November– December), "What is strategy?"Harvard Business Review: 61–78; Siggelkow, N. (2001), "Change in the presence of fit: The rise, the fall, and the re- naissance of Liz Claiborne," Academy of Management Journal 44: 838–857; and Magretta, J. (2012), Understanding Michael Porter. The Essential Guide to Competition and Strategy (Boston: Harvard Business School Press). 49. Raz, G. (2017, Jun. 5), "How I Built This," NPR, www.npr.org/2017/08/07/531097687/five- guys-jerry-murrell. 50. This discussion draws on: Porter, M.E. (1996, November–December), "What is strategy?"Harvard Business Review: 61–78. 51. This discussion draws on: Porter, M.E. (1996, November–December), "What is strategy?"Harvard Business Review: 61–78; and Siggelkow, N. (2002), "Evolution toward fit," Administrative Science Quarterly 47: 125–159. 52. https://careers.vanguard.com/vgcareers/ why_vgi/story/mission.shtml. 53. "Funds: How much you're really paying," Money (2005, November); and https://personal. vanguard.com/us/content/Home/WhyVanguard/ AboutVanguardWhoWeAreContent.jsp. 54. The Vanguard Group, various annual re- ports, and "Facts about Vanguard," https:// about.vanguard.com/who-we-are/fast-facts/. 55. Sources: Kumer, E. (undated), "This restau- rant serves the unhealthiest french fries in America," Reader's Digest, www.rd.com/food/ fun/unhealthiest-fries-america-five-guys/; and Fryar, C.D., J.P. Hughes, K.A. Herrick, and N. Ahluwalia (2018, October), "Fast food consump- tion among adults in the United States, 2013– 2016," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db322-h.pdf.

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