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T O W A R D T H E R E N A I S S A N C E  • 371 which are the focal point of the composition. Yet another innovation—perhaps Giotto's most important one—was his interest in depicting the psychological and emotional reactions of his subjects. The characters in The Lamentation interact in a natural, human way that gives this and the artist's other religious scenes a special warmth. The angels observing the scene are particularly moving, each revealing grief through pose and facial expression. Neither Duccio nor Giotto had an especially long career. Each did his most significant work in the first decade of the 14th century. Yet in that short time the course of Western art history changed dramatically. Both artists had sought a new direction for painting—a more naturalistic, more human, more engaging representa- tion of the physical world—and both had taken giant steps in that direction. Their experiments paved the way for a flowering of all the arts that would come in the next century. 15.26 Giotto. The Lamentation, detail from the Scrovegni Chapel, Padua. ca. 1303–05. Fresco. De Agostini Picture Library/A. Dagli Orti/ Bridgeman Images

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