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368 • C H R I S T I A N I T Y A N D T H E F O R M A T I O N O F E U R O P E Carved a mere hundred years later, this second group of figures (15.22) dis- plays the mature Gothic style. Whereas the bodies of the earlier statues took the form of the columns they adorned, the bodies here are more fully rounded and have begun to detach themselves from their architectural supports. The three saints on the right still seem to float somewhat, as though suspended in midair, but the figure of Saint Theodore at the far left truly stands, his weight on his feet. A sense of underlying musculature is evident in armor covering his arms, and his garment, although not yet fully naturalistic, is carved with an awareness of a body underneath. It would remain for another era to conceive of the body first, and then figure out how clothing would drape over it. The glory of Gothic cathedrals is their magnificent stained glass. Chartres contains over 150 stained-glass windows. Their motifs include stories from the Bible, lives of the saints, signs of the zodiac, and donors from every level of society, from knights and nobles to tradespeople such as butchers and bakers. Among the most resplendent medieval windows are the great radiating, circular groupings called rose windows (15.23). This rose window, one of three at Chartres, is dedicated to Mary, the mother of Jesus. She is depicted at its center enthroned as the Queen of Heaven. Radiating from her are windows portraying doves and angels, biblical kings, symbols of French royalty, and prophets. Like the gold of Byzantine mosaics, the gemlike colors of stained glass represent a medieval vision of heavenly splendor. 15.21 Door jamb statues, west facade, Chartres Cathedral. ca. 1145–70. Schütze/Rodemann/akg-images 15.22 Sts Theodore, Stephen, Clement, and Lawrence, door jamb statues, south transept, Chartres Cathedral. 13th century. Peter Willi/Bridgeman Images

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