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T H E M I D D L E A G E S I N E U R O P E  • 363 in present-day Germany. With papal permission, he transported marble, mosaics, and other materials from buildings in Rome and Ravenna for his project. It is likely that he brought artisans as well, who worked side by side with their Frankish col- leagues. The chapel from Charlemagne's monumental palace complex has survived, for it was later incorporated into Aachen Cathedral (15.13). The basic plan of the chapel was probably inspired by San Vitale in Ravenna, which Charlemagne had visited several times (see 15.6, 15.7). It was an appropriate choice for a ruler determined to revive the idea of the Roman Empire. Like San Vitale, the chapel consists of a domed octagonal core with a surrounding aisle and upper gallery. But Charlemagne's architects created a weightier and more rectilinear interior, featuring Roman arches set on massive piers, and they covered the aisles with stone vaulting. The central plan of Charlemagne's chapel links it to the many central-plan churches of the Byzantine Empire to the east. The Roman arches, mas- sive piers, and stone vaulting, in contrast, foretell the next style to emerge in Europe, the Romanesque. The High Middle Ages Historians generally divide the art and architecture of the high Middle Ages into two periods: the Romanesque, from about 1050 to 1200, and the Gothic, from about 1200 into the 15th century, which was created in northern France and spread from there. 15.12 Gospel of Matthew, from the Book of Kells. ca. 800 c.e. Tempera and gold on vellum. The Print Collector/Alamy Stock Photo 15.13 Interior, palace chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen. 792–805. © Achim Bednorz, Cologne

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