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356 • C H R I S T I A N I T Y A N D T H E F O R M A T I O N O F E U R O P E all faiths now free to practice openly, but also Constantine himself patronized Christianity. While battling his political enemies in 312, Constantine had had a vision of a cross with the inscription In hoc signo vinces, or "In this sign, conquer." He interpreted this to mean that following Christian teachings and worshiping the Christian god would lead him to victory. He won the battle and converted to the Christian faith. His Triumphal Arch (15.1), a monument erected to commemo- rate his victories, pictures the battle that secured his imperial title as well as scenes of past emperors' triumphs and personifications of victory. The relief sculpture is 15.1 Arch of Constantine, Rome. 312–15 c.e. Marble. Peter Noyce/Alamy Stock Photo 15.2 Constantine and his court, from the Arch of Constantine. funkyfood London - Paul Williams/Alamy Stock Photo

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