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Chapter 11 Physical Development and Health in Middle Childhood   •   253 Answers: 1–b; 2–Improvement in children's dental health is also attributed to use of adhesive sealants on the rough, chewing surfaces and better access to preventive dental care; 3–decreases; increases; 4–c; 5–b; 6–Benefits of recess-time play include growth in agility and social competence, better adjustment to school, and improved cognitive performance; 7–more; 8–d; 9–d; 10–Among the reasons for the disparity in health care access for children from lower socioeconomic groups are less knowledgable about good health habits, limited access to health insurance and health care, poor diet, not being able to afford participation in organized sports teams, and the use of clinics or emergency rooms rather than doctor's offices; 11–c; 12–Among the possible variables that put children at risk for depression are parental depression, anxiety, substance abuse or antisocial behavior, and genetic contributions. 1. Between the ages of 6 and 11, the typical child will grow: a. ½ to 1 inch a year b. 2 to 3 inches a year c. 5 to 6 inches a year d. 5 to 6 inches a year, but only if given synthetic growth hormone  2. What are two ways in which children's dental health has been promoted?  3. With respect to brain development, the gray matter and the white matter in volume over childhood.  4. Which of the following is the best description of a healthy diet in middle childhood? a. a high-protein, high-fat diet b. a low-protein diet rich in complex carbohydrates c. a varied diet including plenty of grains, fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates d. none of the above; what a healthy diet is depends upon the individual child's nutritional needs  5. With respect to sleep, most children: a. get adequate sleep b. get less sleep than they need c. get more sleep than they need d. get less sleep than they need on weekdays, and adequate amounts on weekends  6. What are two benefits of recess-time play?  7. In general, boys spend time playing sports than girls.  8. Which of the following is most likely to be overweight? a. a white girl b. an Asian boy c. a Hispanic boy d. a non-Hispanic black girl  9. Which of the following medical conditions has increased in middle childhood over the past few decades? a. asthma b. diabetes c. hypertension d. all of the above  10. What are two ways to explain the relationship between being poor and not having adequate health care? 11. What is the leading cause of death in school-age children? a. diabetes b. cancer c. accidents d. asthma  12. What are three variables that contribute to childhood depression? Practice Quiz

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