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LEARNING 205 (MODULE 16) Photos: (positive reinforcement) ©Ryan McVay/Getty Images; (negative reinforcement) ©Stockbyte/Getty Images; (positive punishment) ©Gladskikh Tatiana/Shutterstock; (negative punishment) ©Amy Etra/PhotoEdit (MODULE 17) Photo: ©Jane/fStop/Getty Images Design Credits: Exploring Diversity (head): ©McGraw-Hill Education; Becoming an Informed Consumer of Psychology (book): ©Veer/ Brand X Pictures Cumulative frequency of responses Cumulative frequency of responses Cumulative frequency of responses Cumulative frequency of responses Time Time Time Time There are short pauses after each response Responding occurs at a high, steady rate Responding occurs at a steady rate There are typically long pauses after each response Fixed-Ratio Schedule A Variable-Ratio Schedule B Fixed-Interval Schedule C Variable-Interval Schedule D • Shaping: Reinforcing successive approximations of behavior • Schedules of reinforcement Basic Principle: Behavior changes in frequency according to its consequences (continued) M O D U L E 17 Cognitive Approaches to Learning Cognitive Learning Theory: Focuses on the internal thoughts and expectations • Latent learning: A new behavior is learned but is not demonstrated until it is reinforced • Observational learning: We learn by watching the behavior of others A

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